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Table of Contents

Biography

AbstractImportant DatesOccupationPlacesSubjects

Relationships

PeopleInstitutions

Resources

Archival as AuthorArchival as SubjectPublished as AuthorPublished as Subject

Francis Bitter

Photo

Dates

July 22, 1902 – July 26, 1967

Authorized Form of Name

Bitter, Francis, 1902-1967

Additional Forms of Names

Bitter, Francis

Biography

Abstract

Physicist, 1902-1967. Major affiliations include: Westinghouse Co., Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 1930-1934; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1934-1967.

Important Dates

July 22, 1902Birth, Weehawken (N.J.).

1919 – 1922Undergraduate work at University of Chicago, Chicago (Ill.).

1924Obtained BS, Columbia University, New York (N.Y.).

1925 – 1926Graduate work at University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany).

1928Obtained PhD in Physics, Columbia University, New York (N.Y.).

1928 – 1930National Research Fellow working under Robert Millikan, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (Calif.).

1930 – 1942Research Engineer (1930-1934) and consultant (1934-1942), Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, Pittsburgh (Pa.).

1933 – 1934Guggenheim Fellow working under Petr Kapitsa, Cavendish Laboratories, Cambridge University.

1934 – 1967Associate Professor of Metallurgy (1934-1945), Associate Professor of Physics (1945-1951), Professor of Physics (1951-1960), Associate Dean of Science (1956-1960), and Professor of Geophysics (1960-1967), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Through Bitter's efforts the magnet laboratory was established by 1938. In 1960 Bitter became responsible for the design and completion of the National Magnet Laboratory, renamed the Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory after his death, Cambridge (Mass.).

1941 – 1945Officer, Bureau of Ordnance, United States Navy.

July 26, 1967Death, Cape Cod (Mass.).

Occupation

Physicist.

Places

Birth

Weehawken (N.J.)

Undergraduate Education

Chicago (Ill.)

New York (N.Y.)

Graduate Education

Berlin (Germany)

New York (N.Y.)

Employment

Pasadena (Calif.)

Pittsburgh (Pa.)

Cambridge (Mass.)

Death

Cape Cod (Mass.)

Subjects

Electromagnets.

Ferromagnetism.

Magnetism.

Physics -- Study and teaching.

Relationships

People

Family

Bitter, Karl Theodore Francis, 1867-1915

Father.

Bitter, Marie Schevill.

Mother.

Ratan Devī.

First wife, married in 1928.

Welchman, Katherine.

Second wife.

Advisors & Collaborators

Brossel, Jean

Collaborated on experiments with double resonance.

Fowler, Clarence Maxwell.

Collaborated on work about the precise control of high explosives which led to megagauss magnets.

Harrison, George Russell, 1898-1979

Collaborated on the use of new magnets for investigations of optical phenomena, particularly the Zeeman effect.

Millikan, Robert Andrews, 1868-1953

Post-doc advisor at California Institute of Technology and both employed there.

Wills, A .P.

Ph.D. advisor at University of Columbia studying diamagnetic susceptibility of hydrocarbons.

Colleagues

Anderson, Carl D. (Carl David), 1905-1991

Both employed at California Institute of Technology.

Bateman, Harry, 1882-1946

Both employed at California Institute of Technology.

Benedek, George Bernard, 1928-

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Buechner, William W. (William Weber), 1914-1985

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Burstein, Elias, 1917-2017

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Callen, Herbert B.

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Compton, K. T. (Karl Taylor), 1887-1954

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Condon, Edward Uhler, 1902-1974

Both employed at Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company.

Deutsch, Martin, 1917-2002

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Drell, Sidney D. (Sidney David), 1926-

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

DuBridge, Lee A. (Lee Alvin), 1901-1994

Both employed at California Institute of Technology.

DuMond, Jesse W. M. (Jesse William Monroe), 1892-1976

Both employed at California Institute of Technology.

Enge, Harald A.

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Epstein, Paul S. (Paul Sophus), 1883-1966

Both employed at California Institute of Technology.

Feshbach, Herman

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Frank, Nathaniel H. (Nathaniel Herman), 1903-1984

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Friedman, Jerome I. (Jerome Isaac), 1930-

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Galt, John Kirtland, 1920-

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Glimm, James

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Hansen, W. W. (William Webster), 1909-1949

Both employed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Herring, William Conyers, 1914-

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Houston, W. V. (William Vermillion), 1900-

Both employed at California Institute of Technology.

Jackson, John David, 1925-2016

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Javan, Ali, 1926-

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Kapitsa, P. L. (Petr Leonidovich), 1894-1984

Research scientist under Kapitsa at the Cavendish Laboratories, Cambridge University for a Guggenheim Fellowship.

Kendall, Henry W. (Henry Way), 1926-1999

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Keyes, Frederick G. (Frederick George), 1885-1976

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Killian, James Rhyne, 1904-1988

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Klein, Martin J.

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Kleppner, Daniel

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Kraushaar, William L.

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Lauritsen, Charles Christian, 1892-1968

Both employed at California Institute of Technology.

Lax, Benjamin

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Livingston, M. Stanley (Milton Stanley)

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Low, Francis E. (Francis Eugene), 1921-2007

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

MacDonald, Gordon J. (Gordon James), 1929-2002

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Morrison, Philip

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Morse, Philip M. (Philip McCord), 1903-1985

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1904-1967

Both employed at California Institute of Technology.

Orowan, E. (Egon), 1902-1989

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Pekeris, C. L. (Chaim Leib), 1908-1993

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Press, Frank, 1924-

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Rasmussen, Norman C.

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Robertson, H. P. (Howard Percy), 1903-1961

Both employed at California Institute of Technology.

Rossi, Bruno, 1905-1993

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Schulz, George J., 1925-

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Shull, Clifford Glenwood

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Slater, John C. (John Clarke), 1900-1976

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Slepian, Joseph, 1891-

Both employed at Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company.

Spruch, Larry

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Stratton, Julius Adams, 1901-1994

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Tolman, Richard C. (Richard Chace), 1881-1948

Both employed at California Institute of Technology.

Townes, Charles H.

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Van de Graaf, Robert Jemison, 1901-1967

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Von Kármán, Theodore, 1881-1963

Both employed at California Institute of Technology.

Weiss, Rainer

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Weisskopf, Victor Frederick, 1908-2002

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Wiesner, Jerome B. (Jerome Bert), 1915-1994

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Zacharias, Jerrold Reinach, 1905-1986

Both employed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Additional

Bloch, Felix, 1905-

Bloembergen, N.

Cockcroft, John, Sir, 1897-1967

Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude

Darrow, Karl K. (Karl Kelchner), 1891-

Kastler, Alfred

Pound, Robert V.

Rashevsky, Nicholas, 1899-1972

Roberts, John D., 1918-

Seitz, Frederick, 1911-2008

States, M. N. (Marshall Ney)

Studied at University of Chicago together.

Tonks, Lewi, 1897-1971

Yensen, Trygve D. (Trygve Dewey), 1884-1950.

Zwicky, F. (Fritz), 1898-1974

Institutions

Major Positions

Arthur D. Little, Inc.

Consultant.

California Institute of Technology. Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy

National Research Fellow.

Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge, England)

Guggenheim Fellow.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Associate Dean of Science.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Geology and Geophysics

Professor of Geophysics.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Physics

Associate Professor of Metallurgy; Associate Professor of Physics; and Professor of Physics.

United States. Navy. Bureau of Ordnance

Officer.

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company

Research Engineer and Consultant.

Professional Activities & Affiliations

American Academy of Arts and Sciences

American Association of Physics Teachers

American Institute of Physics

American Physical Society

Bell Telephone Laboratories

Berlin Universitat. Dept. of Physics.

Completed graduate-level studies.

Columbia University. Department of Physics

Obtained BS (1924) and PhD in Physics (1928).

Educational Services Incorporated. Physical Science Study Committee. Education Development Center.

Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory

Responsible for the Laboratory's organization in 1960.

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

National Research Council (U.S.)

University of Chicago

Performed undergraduate studies before transferring to Columbia University.

Resources

Archival Resources

Author

Francis Bitter correspondence with Lewi Tonks, circa 1925-1930.

Manuscript Division

Library of Congress

James Madison Memorial Building, First Street and Independence Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20540, USA

Francis Bitter papers, 1925-1967.

Institute Archives and Special Collections

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

M.I.T. Libraries, Rm. 14N-118, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

Subject

Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory records, 1957-1987.

Institute Archives and Special Collections

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

M.I.T. Libraries, Rm. 14N-118, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

Heinrich Medicus notes, 1958-1959.

Institute Archives and Special Collections

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

M.I.T. Libraries, Rm. 14N-118, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

Lewi Tonks correspondence with Francis Bitter, circa 1925-1930.

Manuscript Division

Library of Congress

James Madison Memorial Building, First Street and Independence Avenue SE, Washington, DC 20540, USA

MIT Office of the President records of Karl Taylor Compton and James Rhyne Killian, 1930-1959.

Institute Archives and Special Collections

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

M.I.T. Libraries, Rm. 14N-118, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

Oral history interview with Jean Brossel, 1983 March 3 and 8.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with John D. Roberts, 2007 July 27.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Nicolaas Bloembergen, 1983 June 27.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Robert V. Pound, 2006 September 23, November 4, 18, 2007 February 19 and April 22.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Published Resources

Author

Currents, fields, and particles / Francis Bitter.

Introduction to ferromagnetism / by Francis Bitter.

Introduction to ferromagnetism [microform] / by Francis Bitter.

Magnets: the education of a physicist.

Mathematical aspects of physics, an introduction.

Nuclear physics : a textbook.

Selected papers and commentaries. Edited by T. Erber and C. M. Fowler.

Subject

Francis Bitter Physics Today obituary