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Table of Contents

Biography

AbstractImportant DatesOccupationPlacesSubjects

Relationships

PeopleInstitutions

Resources

Archival as AuthorArchival as SubjectPublished as AuthorPublished as Subject

William Shockley

Photo

Dates

February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989

Authorized Form of Name

Shockley, William, 1910-1989

Additional Forms of Names

Shockley, William Bradford, 1910-1989

Biography

Abstract

William Shockley was Alexander M. Poniatoff Professor of Engineering Science at Stanford University (1963-1974). Other institutional affiliations include Bell Laboratories, Beckman Instruments, Inc., Shockley Transistor Corporation, and Clevite Corporation. He research was in solid-state physics and semiconductors. In 1956, Shockley, together with Walter Brattain and John Bardeen, won the Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of transistors.

Important Dates

February 13, 1910Birth, London (England).

1932Obtained BS, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (Calif.).

1936Obtained PhD in Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge (Mass.).

1936 – 1954Member, Technical Staff, Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill (N.J.).

1942 – 1944Director of Research, Antisubmarine Warfare Operations Research Group, United States Navy.

1944 – 1945Expert Consultant to the Secretary of War, United States Department of War.

1946Lecturer in Physics, Princeton University.

1951Member, National Academy of Sciences.

1951 – 1989Member, Science Advisory Panel, United States Army.

1953Awarded Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize, American Physical Society.

1954Visiting Professor, California Institute of Technology.

1954 – 1955Director of Research, Weapons Systems Evaluation Group, United States Department of Defense.

1955 – 1958Research Physicist, Beckman Instruments, Inc.

1956Awarded Nobel Prize in Physics with John Bardeen and Walter Brattain "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".

1958 – 1960President, Shockley Transistor Corporation.

1960 – 1963Director, Transistor Division, Clevite Corporation.

1963 – 1975Executive Consultant, Bell Telephone Laboratories.

1963 – 1989Alexander M. Poniatoff Professor of Engineering Science (1963-1974) and Emeritus Professor of Electrical Engineering (1974-1989), Stanford University, Stanford (Calif.).

August 12, 1989Death, Stanford (Calif.).

Occupation

Electrical engineer.

Places

Birth

London (England)

Undergraduate Education

Pasadena (Calif.)

Graduate Education

Cambridge (Mass.)

Employment

Murray Hill (N.J.)

Stanford (Calif.)

Death

Stanford (Calif.)

Subjects

Electronics.

Semiconductors.

Solid state physics.

Transistors.

Relationships

People

Family

Shockley, Emmy Lanning

Second wife. Married 1955.

Shockley, Jean Alberta Bailey

First wife. Married 1933-1955.

Shockley, May Bradford, 1879-1977

Mother.

Shockley, W. H., 1855-1925

Father.

Advisors & Collaborators

Bardeen, John

Shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics with Walter Brattain for their research on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect and both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Brattain, Walter H. (Walter Houser), 1902-1987

Shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics with John Bardeen for their research on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect and both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Conwell, Esther M. (Esther Marley), 1922-2014

Advised by Shockley at Bell Telephone Laboratories and both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Slater, John C. (John Clarke), 1900-1976

PhD advisor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), "Calculation of Electron Wave Functions in Sodium Chloride Crystals".

Colleagues

Anderson, P. W. (Philip W.), 1923-

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Ashkin, Arthur, 1922-

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Beasley, Malcolm

Both employed at Stanford University.

Bode, Hendrik W. (Hendrik Wade), 1905-1982

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Boyle, Willard S., 1924-2011

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Buckley, Oliver Ellsworth, 1887-1959

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Chodorow, Marvin

Both employed at Stanford University.

Chynoweth, A. G.

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Clogston, Albert McCavour

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Cutler, Cassius Chapin

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Darlington, Sidney, 1906-1997

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

David, Edward E.

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Davisson, Clinton Joseph, 1881-1958

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Feher, George, 1924-

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Fisk, James B. (James Brown), 1910-1981

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Fletcher, Harvey, 1884-1981

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Galt, John Kirtland, 1920-

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Geballe, Theodore H.

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Hagstrum, Homer D.

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Herring, William Conyers, 1914-

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Ives, Herbert Eugene, 1882-1953

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Jewett, Frank B. (Frank Baldwin), 1879-1949

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Kelly, Mervin Joe

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Kittel, Charles

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Kompfner, Rudolf, 1909-1977

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories and Stanford University.

Kraichnan, Robert H., 1928-2008

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Kusch, Polykarp, 1911-1993

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Lander, James J., 1914-1996

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Matthias, Bernd T., 1918-1980

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Pearson, Gerald L. (Gerald Leondus)

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories and Stanford University.

Pfann, William G.

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Schawlow, Arthur L., 1921-1999

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Spicer, W. E. (William E.)

Both employed at Stanford University.

Suhl, Harry

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Terman, Frederick Emmons, 1900-1982

Both employed at Stanford University.

Thomas, D. G. (David Gilbert), 1928-

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Townes, Charles H.

Both employed at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Additional

Darrow, Karl K. (Karl Kelchner), 1891-

Instructor of a summer class Shockley took at Stanford University.

Dunning, John R. (John Ray), 1907-1975

Fermi, Enrico, 1901-1954

Hoddeson, Lillian

Holden, Alan

Holonyak, Nick, 1928-

Houston, W. V. (William Vermillion), 1900-

Johnson, Vivian A. (Vivian Annabelle), 1912-

Kelly, Harry C.

Kelly, Katherine Milsted

Kip, Arthur F.

Leverenz, Humboldt W.

Millman, S. (Sidney), 1904-2006

Morgan, Stanley Owen, 1900-

Morse, Philip M. (Philip McCord), 1903-1985

Nix, Foster Cary, 1905-

Ohl, Russell S.

Pauling, Linus, 1901-1994

Pierce, John R. (John Robinson), 1910-2002

Riordan, Michael, 1946-

Seitz, Frederick, 1911-2008

Van Vleck, J. H. (John Hasbrouck), 1899-1980

Varney, Robert N.

White, Addison Hughson, 1909-

Wooldridge, Dean E.

Institutions

Major Positions

Beckman Instruments, inc.

Research Physicist.

Bell Telephone Laboratories

Member, Technical Staff and Executive Consultant.

Princeton University. Department of Physics

Lecturer in Physics.

Stanford University. Department of Electrical Engineering

Alexander M. Poniatoff Professor of Engineering Sciences and Emeritus Professor of Electrical Engineering.

United States. Department of Defense. Weapons Systems Evaluation Group

Director of Research.

Professional Activities & Affiliations

American Physical Society

Received 1953 Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize.

California Institute of Technology. Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy

Obtained BSc (1932). Visiting Professor.

Columbia University. Department of Physics

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Physics

Obtained PhD (1936).

National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)

Member.

United States. Army

Member, Science Advisory Panel.

United States. National Bureau of Standards

United States. Navy

Director of Research, Antisubmarine Warfare Operations Research Group.

United States. War Department

Expert Consultant to the Secretary of War.

University of California, Los Angeles. Department of Physics

Resources

Archival Resources

Author

Bell Telephone Laboratories the physics of transistors and semiconductors, 1953.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Dennis Gabor correspondence, 1961-1969.

American Heritage Center

University of Wyoming

Dept. 3924, 1000 E. University Avenue, Laramie, WY 82071, USA

Interview with the transistor's inventors [motion picture] / produced by Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Isabel Steiner Karkau collection on William Shockley and eugenics, 1966-1973.

Department of Special Collections and University Archives

Stanford University

Stanford, CA 94305, USA

Lillian Hoddeson papers, 1904-2001.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Michael Riordan's research materials for "Crystal Fire," 1900-2009.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Nobel laureates on scientific research project : oral history, 1964.

Oral History Research Office

Columbia University

Box 20, Room 801 Butler Library, New York, NY 10027, USA

Oral history interview with William Bradford Shockley, 1976.

The Bancroft Library

University of California, Berkeley

Berkeley, CA, 94720-6000, USA

Oral history interview with William Shockley, 1974 September 10.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Reminiscences of William Bradford Shockley : oral history, 1964.

Oral History Research Office

Columbia University

Box 20, Room 801 Butler Library, New York, NY 10027, USA

The invention of the transistor [sound recording] edited by Richard A. Rikoski.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

William E. Spicer collection on William Shockley and eugenics, 1965-1970.

Department of Special Collections and University Archives

Stanford University

Stanford, CA 94305, USA

William Shockley papers, 1860-1988 (bulk 1940-1988).

Department of Special Collections and University Archives

Stanford University

Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

Subject

American Physical Society Division of Solid State Physics records of Roman Smoluchowski, 1943-1947.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

AT&T Archives and History Center records, 1869- present.

AT&T Archives and History Center

5 Reinman Road, Warren, NJ 07060, USA

David W. Diffenderfer recollections of Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, 2002.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Hans Thacher Clarke papers, circa 1903-1973.

Library

American Philosophical Society

105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA

J. H. Van Vleck papers, 1853-1981 (1920-1980).

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

John Bardeen papers, 1910-1991.

University Archives

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

1408 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

John Clarke Slater papers, 1908-1976.

Library.

American Philosophical Society

105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA

Lee A. DuBridge papers, 1932-1986.

Institute Archives

California Institute of Technology

1201 East California Blvd. (Mail Code 015A-74), Pasadena, CA 91125, USA

Lillian Hoddeson addition to papers, 1913-2006.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview Addison Hughson White, 1976 September 30.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Alan Holden, 1974 July 30 and 1976 June 21.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Arthur Frederic Kip, 1982 June 16.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Charles H. Townes, 1979 June 18 and 20.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Dean E. Wooldridge, 1976 August 21.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Edward N. Clarke, 2010 September 27.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Esther Conwell, 2007 January 22.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Esther M. Conwell, 1983 March 22.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Foster Cary Nix, 1975 June 27.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Frederick Seitz, 1981 January 26, 27, March 24 and 1982 March 16.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Frederick Seitz, 1982 October 6 and 7.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Gerald Leondus Pearson, 1976 August 23 and 8 April 1980.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Harry C. Kelly, 1975 October 27.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Humboldt Walter Leverenz, 1979 July 10.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with James Brown Fisk, 1976 June 24.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with John Bardeen, 1980 February 13.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with John Clarke Slater, 1970 February 23 and August 7.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with John Robinson Pierce, 1979 April 16-27.

Institute Archives

California Institute of Technology

1201 East California Blvd. (Mail Code 015A-74), Pasadena, CA 91125, USA

Oral history interview with Katharine Milsted Kelly, 1976 July 2.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Leon H. Fisher and Robert N. Varney, 2008 July 26.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Linus Carl Pauling, 1964 March 27.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Nick Holonyak Jr., 1993 June 22.

IEEE History Center

Rutgers University

39 Union Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA

Oral history interview with P. W. Anderson [videorecording] : 1999-2002.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with P. W. Anderson, 1988 May 10.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Philip Anderson, 1999 March 30, May 30, November 23 and June 29, 2000.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Ralph Bray, 1982 May 14.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Robert Gibney 1978 January 11.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Russell S. Ohl, 1976 August 19 and 20.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Sidney Millman, 1974 August 2, September 13 and 1975 August 21.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Stanley Owen Morgan, 1975 July 3.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Vivian Annabelle Johnson, 1981 July 13.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Walter H. Brattain, 1964 January and 28 May 1974.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with William Conyers Herring, 1974 July 23, 29, and 31 October.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with William Conyers Herring, 2000 August 5.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Phillip M. Morse autobiographical data, circa 1962.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Rockefeller University, President Detlev W. Bronk records, 1897-1976.

Rockefeller Archive Center

15 Dayton Ave., Pocantico Hills, North Tarrytown, NY 10591-1598, USA

The Princeton years and beyond, 1930-1940: Invited paper for the March 1992 meeting of the American Physical Society, 1992.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Transistorized! [videorecording] / co-production of ScienCentral and Twin Cities Public Television; producer, Gino Del Guercio; executive producer and narrator, Ira Flatow, 1998.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Transistorized! voice clips [sound recording], 1964-1977.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Published Resources

Author

Electrons and holes in semiconductors : with applications to transistor electronics.

Imperfections in nearly perfect crystals : symposium held at Pocono Manor, October 12-14, 1950 / editorial committee, W. Shockley, chairman ... [et al.] ; sponsored by The Committee on Solids, Division of Physical Sciences, The National Research Council.

Mechanics / William Shockley, Walter A. Gong.

The conservation of energy concept in ninth grade general science / William Shockley, Paul D. Hurd, Frederick J. McDonald.

The quantum physics of solids, I : the energies of electrons in crystals.

Subject

"William Bradford Shockley: 1910-1989", Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences.

Broken genius : the rise and fall of William Shockley, creator of the electronic age / Joel N. Shurkin.

Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1997)

Nobel Prize Biography

William Shockley Physics Today obituary.