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Table of Contents

Biography

AbstractImportant DatesOccupationPlacesSubjects

Relationships

PeopleInstitutions

Resources

Archival as AuthorArchival as SubjectPublished as AuthorPublished as Subject

Herbert Friedman

Photo

Dates

June 21, 1916 – September 9, 2000

Authorized Form of Name

Friedman, Herbert, 1916-2000

Biography

Abstract

Herbert Friedman was Emeritus Chief Scientist, E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Naval Research Laboratory, United States Navy (1963-2000). He also worked in the Atmosphere and Astrophysics Division and the Electron Optics Branch at the Naval Research Laboratory, United States Navy. His research interests included the upper atmosphere and solar x-rays.

Important Dates

June 21, 1916Birth, Brooklyn (New York, N.Y.).

1936Obtained BS, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn (New York, N.Y.).

1940Obtained PhD in Physics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (Md.).

1940 – 2000Physicist, Metallurgy Department (1940-1941); Head, Electron Optics Branch (1941-1958); Superintendent, Atmosphere and Astrophysics Division (1958-1963); Superintendent, Space Science Division (1963-1980); Chief Scientist, E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research (1963-1980); and Emeritus Chief Scientist, E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research (1980-2000), Naval Research Laboratory, United States Navy, Washington (D.C.).

1945 – 1950Adjunct Professor, Naval Medical School, Bethesda, Maryland, United States Navy.

1960Member, National Academy of Sciences.

1960 – 1963Director, American Rocket Society.

1960 – 1975Member, Space Science Board, National Academy of Sciences.

1961 – 1980Adjunct Professor, University of Maryland.

1962 – 1975Member, Inter-UnionCommittee on the Ionosphere (1962-1966); President, Inter-Union Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (1963-1966); President, Special Committee for Solar-Terrestrial Physics (1966-1974); and Vice-President, Committee on Space Research (1971-1975), International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU).

1964Member, American Philosophical Society.

1964Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

1964 – 1968Member, Rocket Panel (1964-1968) and Member, Panel on Atmospheric Science (1964-1967), President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC).

1964 – 1970Member, Board of Trustees, International Academy of Astronautics.

1965 – 1970Member, Executive Committee, Council, American Geophysical Union.

1966 – 1969Visiting Professor, Yale University.

1966 – 1969Member, Council, American Astronomical Society.

1966 – 1970Member, Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research, Geophysics Research Board.

1966 – 1990Editor, Review of Space Science, Astronautics, and Aeronautics.

1967 – 1969Member, Committee on Science and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences.

1967 – 1970Member, Astronomy Missions Board, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

1967 – 1970Member, Board of Trustees, Associated Universities, Inc.

1968Awarded National Medal of Science.

1968 – 1974Member, General Advisory Committee, United States Atomic Energy Commission.

1969 – 1974Member, Executive Committee, Division of Physical Sciences, National Research Council.

1970Member, Executive Committee, Associated Universities, Inc.

1970 – 1972Chair, X-ray and Gamma Ray Panel, National Research Council.

1970 – 1973President, Commission 48 on High Energy Astrophysics, International Astronomical Union.

1970 – 1973Member, President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC).

1971 – 1974Chair, International Relations Committee, Space Science Board, National Academy of Sciences.

1971 – 1974Chair, Class I (Physical and Mathematical Sciences), National Academy of Sciences.

1971 – 1974Chair, Class I (Physical and Mathematical Sciences), National Academy of Sciences.

1972Vice-President and Chair, Section on Physics, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

1972Chair, Study on Stratospheric Ozone, National Research Council.

1974 – 1977Member, Space Program Advisory Council, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

1976 – 1978Member, Advisory Board, Office of Physical Sciences, Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Research Council.

1976 – 1979Chair, Geophysics Research Board, National Research Council.

1977 – 1980Member, Climate Research Board, National Research Council.

1979 – 1982Member, Council, National Academy of Sciences.

1979 – 1982Member, Governing Board, National Research Council.

1980 – 1982Chair, Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Research Council.

1981 – 1986Member, Film Committee, National Academy of Sciences.

1982 – 1986Co-Chair, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, National Research Council.

1985 – 1988Member, Board of Trustees, Universities Research Association.

1986 – 1988Member, Advisory Board to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Universities Research Association.

1986 – 1992Member, Research Advisory Committee (1987-1992) and Martin-Marietta Fellow (1986-1987), National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.

1987Awarded Wolf Foundation Prize in Physics.

1988 – 1994Member, Space Studies Board, National Academy of Sciences.

1989 – 1990Member, Astronomy Survey Committee, National Research Council.

1989 – 1992Member, Film Committee, National Academy of Sciences.

1993 – 1999Member, Council, American Philosophical Society.

September 9, 2000Death, Arlington (Va.).

Occupation

Geophysicist.

Places

Birth

Brooklyn (New York, N.Y.)

Undergraduate Education

Brooklyn (New York, N.Y.)

Graduate Education

Baltimore (Md.)

Employment

Washington (D.C.)

Death

Arlington (Va.)

Subjects

Atmosphere, Upper.

Electron optics.

Geophysics.

Solar x-rays.

X-ray astronomy.

X-ray spectroscopy

Relationships

People

Family

Friedman, Gertrude

Wife.

Friedman, Jon

Son, born 1947.

Friedman, Paul

Son, born 1944.

Advisors & Collaborators

Bearden, J. A., (Joyce Alvin), 1903-

PhD advisor at Johns Hopkins University regarding X-ray interactions with materials.

Colleagues

Alvarez, Luis W., 1911-1988

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Baldeschwieler, John D., 1933-

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Bennett, Ivan L., Jr.

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Buchsbaum, Solomon J.

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Cairns, Theodore L. (Theodore Lesueur), 1914-1994

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Coleman, James S., 1926-1995

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

David, Edward E.

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Drell, Sidney D. (Sidney David), 1926-

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

DuBridge, Lee A. (Lee Alvin), 1901-1994

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Ference, Michael, 1911-

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Fitch, Val L., 1923-2015

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Fletcher, James Chipman, 1919-1991

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Garwin, Richard L.

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Gell-Mann, Murray

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Haggerty, Patrick E.

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Moynihan, Daniel P. (Daniel Patrick), 1927-2003

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Olsen, Kenneth H.

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Seitz, Frederick, 1911-2008

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Simon, Herbert A. (Herbert Alexander), 1916-2001

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Smith, Lloyd H., 1924-

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Tape, Gerald Frederick, 1915-2005

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Townes, Charles H.

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Truxal, John G.

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Turner, Howard Sinclair, 1911-

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Wood, Harland G. (Harland Goff), 1907-1991

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Wyngaarden, James B., 1924-

Both worked on President's Science Advisory Committee.

Additional

Bowyer, C. Stuart, 1934-

Byram, Edward Taylor (E. T.)

Chubb, Talbot A. (Talbot Albert)

Dupree, Andrea K.

Franck, James, 1882-1964

Giacconi, Riccardo

Harwit, Martin, 1931-

Krause, Ernst Henry, 1913-

Kreplin, Robert

Mange, Phillip, 1925-

Newell, Homer E. (Homer Edward), 1915-1983

Roman, Nancy Grace, 1925-

Tousey, Richard

Van Allen, James A. (James Alfred), 1914-2006

Institutions

Major Positions

American Rocket Society

Director.

Naval Medical School (U.S.)

Adjunct Professor.

Naval Research Laboratory (U.S.)

Physicist, Metallurgy Department; Head, Electron Optics Branch; Superintendent, Atmosphere and Astrophysics Division; Superintendent, Space Science Division; Chief Scientist; and Emeritus Chief Scientist, E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research.

University of Maryland at College Park. Department of Physics and Astronomy

Adjunct Professor.

Yale University. Physics Department

Visiting Professor.

Professional Activities & Affiliations

American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Fellow.

American Association for the Advancement of Science

Vice-President and Chair, Section on Physics.

American Astronomical Society

Member, Council.

American Geophysical Union

Member, Executive Committee, Council.

American Philosophical Society

Member and Member, Council.

Associated Universities, Inc.

Member, Board of Trustees and Member, Executive Committee.

Brooklyn College. Department of Physics

Obtained BS (1936).

International Academy of Astronautics

Member, Board of Trustees.

International Astronomical Union

President, Commission 48 on High Energy Astrophysics.

International Council of Scientific Unions

Committee on the Ionosphere; President, Inter-Union Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics; President, Special Committee for Solar-Terrestrial Physics; and Vice-President, Committee on Space Research.

Johns Hopkins University. Applied Physics Laboratory

Johns Hopkins University. Department of Physics

Obtained PhD in Physics (1940).

National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)

Member, Space Science Board; Member, Committee on Science and Public Policy; Chair, Class I (Physical and Mathematical Sciences); Chair, International Relations Committee, Space Science Board; Member, Council; Member, Film Committee; and Member, Space Studies Board.

National Air and Space Museum

Martin Marietta Fellow and Member, Research Advisory Committee.

National Research Council (U.S.)

Member, Executive Committee, Division of Physical Sciences; Chair, X-ray and Gamma Ray Panel; Chair, Study on Stratospheric Ozone; Member, Advisory Board, Office of Physical Sciences, Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Chair, Geophysics Research Board; Member, Climate Research Board; Member, Governing Board; Chair, Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Co-Chair, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources; and Member, Astronomy Survey Committee.

U.S. Atomic Energy Commission

Member, General Advisory Committee.

United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Member, Astronomy Missions Board and Member, Space Program Advisory Council.

United States. President's Science Advisory Committee

Member; Member, Rocket Panel; and Member, Panel on Atmospheric Science.

Universities Research Association (U.S.)

Member, Board of Trustees and Member, Advisory Board to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

Wolf Foundation Prizes

Received 1987 Wolf Foundation Prize in Physics.

Resources

Archival Resources

Author

Herbert Friedman papers, circa 1940-2000.

Library

American Philosophical Society

105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA

National Air and Space Museum space astronomy oral history project records, 1981-1986.

Archives Division

Smithsonian Institution. National Air and Space Museum

MRC 322, Washington, DC, 20560, USA

Naval Research Laboratory Space Science videohistory collection [videorecording], 1986-1987.

Smithsonian Institution. Archives.

Capital Gallery, Suite 3000, MRC 507, 600 Maryland Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20024-2520, USA

Notes for NASA Astrophysics Workshop (Aspen, Colorado), 12-30 June, 1978.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Herbert Friedman, 1980 August 21.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral History interview with Herbert Friedman, 1983 June 7.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Herbert Friedman, Talbot Chubb, E. T. Byram, and Robert Kreplin, 1986 December 12.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interviews. Space Science: Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2), 1992-1994.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Responses to History of Geophysics Survey, 1997.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Science and engineering television journal: observatories in space [motion picture] / presented by the American Astronomical Society ; produced by John K. Mackenzie ; directed by Bud Myers ; 1965 January 13.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Subject

National Air and Space Museum Space History Division Video History Records, 1985-1992.

Smithsonian Institution. Archives.

Capital Gallery, Suite 3000, MRC 507, 600 Maryland Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20024-2520, USA

Oral history interview with Andrea Dupree, 2007 October 29.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with C. Stuart Bowyer, 1976 July 28 and 10 March 1978.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with E. T. Byram and T. A. Chubb, 1976 July 22.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral History interview with Ernst Henry Krause, 1982 August 10.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Homer Edward Newell, 1980 July 17 and October 20.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral History interview with Martin Harwit, 1983 April 19, June 20, and June 22.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Nancy Grace Roman, 1980 August 19.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Phillip Mange, 2002 December 30 and 2003 March 25.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Published Resources

Author

Sun and Earth / Herbert Friedman.

The astronomer's universe : stars, galaxies, and cosmos / Herbert Friedman.

Subject

"Herbert Friedman: 1916-2000", Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences

Herbert Friedman Physics Today obituary.