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Table of Contents

Biography

AbstractImportant DatesOccupationPlacesSubjects

Relationships

PeopleInstitutions

Resources

Archival as AuthorArchival as SubjectPublished as AuthorPublished as Subject

James Chadwick

Photo

Dates

October 20, 1891 – July 24, 1974

Authorized Form of Name

Chadwick, James, 1891-1974

Additional Forms of Names

Chadwick, James, Sir, 1891-

Chadwick, James, Sir, 1891-1974

Biography

Abstract

James Chadwick (1891-1974) was a nuclear physicist. He was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the neutron". He worked at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory from 1943-1946 as the Head of the British Mission attached to the Manhattan Project.

Important Dates

October 20, 1891Birth, Cheshire (England).

1911Obtained BSc honours in Physics, Manchester University, Manchester (England).

1911 – 1913Research Assistant, Physical Laboratory, Manchester University, Manchester (England).

1913Obtained MsC in Physics, Manchester University, Manchester (England).

1913 – 1914Research scientist, Imperial Physical and Technical Institute (Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt).

1921Obtained PhD in Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (England).

1921 – 1935Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (England).

1927Fellow, Royal Society.

1932Awarded Hughes Medal, Royal Society.

1932Member, Pontifical Academy of Sciences (Pontificia Accademia delle scienze).

1932Published "The Possible Existence of a Neutron”.

1932Member, American Physical Society.

1935Awarded Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the neutron".

1935 – 1948Lyon Jones Chair of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (England).

1940 – 1941Member, MAUD Committee.

1943 – 1946Head of British Mission attached to Manhattan Project, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos (N.M.).

1945Knighted.

1946Foreign Member, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen).

1946Awarded Melchett Medal.

1946Member, Royal Society of Edinburgh.

1946Awarded Transenter Medal.

1946Awarded United States Medal for Merit.

1948 – 1962Master, Gonville and Caius College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (England).

1950Awarded Faraday Medal.

1950Awarded Copley Medal.

1951Awarded the Franklin Medal, Franklin Institute.

1957 – 1962Member, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority.

1967Awarded Guthrie Medal.

July 24, 1974Death, Cambridge (England).

Occupation

Nuclear physicist.

Places

Birth

Cheshire (England)

Undergraduate Education

Manchester (England)

Graduate Education

Manchester (England)

Cambridge (England)

Employment

Cambridge (England)

Los Alamos (N.M.)

Liverpool (England)

Death

Cambridge (England)

Subjects

Atomic and molecular physics.

Atomic bomb -- Japan -- Blast effect.

Atomic structure.

Nuclear physics.

Relationships

People

Family

Chadwick, Aileen Stewart-Brown

Wife.

Chadwick, Anne Mary Knowles

Mother.

Chadwick, John Joseph

Father.

Advisors & Collaborators

Bieler, Etienne Samuel, 1895-

Advised by Chadwick at University of Cambridge.

Ellis, C. D. (Charles Drummond), 1895-1980

Advised by Chadwick at University of Cambridge.

Geiger, Hans, 1882-

PhD advisor at Imperial Physical and Technical Institute (Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt).

Goldhaber, Maurice, 1911-2011

Advised by Chadwick at University of Cambridge in nuclear physics.

Gray, Louis Harold, 1905-1965

Advised by Chadwick at Trinity College, University of Cambridge.

Pollard, Ernest C. (Ernest Charles), 1906-1997

Advised by Chadwick at University of Cambridge.

Rotblat, Joseph, 1908-2005

Collaborated on Manhattan Project.

Rutherford, Ernest, 1871-1937

PhD advisor at University of Cambridge.

Colleagues

Bradbury, Norris, 1909-1997

Both employed at Los Alamos Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Fitch, Val L., 1923-2015

Both employed at Los Alamos Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1904-1967

Both employed at Los Alamos Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Reines, Frederick, 1918-1998

Both employed at Los Alamos Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Ulam, Stanislaw M.

Both employed at Los Alamos Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Additional

Amaldi, Edoardo

Attwood, Vincent

Bainbridge, Kenneth T. (Kenneth Tompkins), 1904-1996

Blackett, P. M. S. (Patrick Maynard Stuart), Baron Blackett, 1897-1974

Bohr, Niels, 1885-1962

Bothe, W. (Walther), 1891-

Bretscher, Egon, 1901-1973

Cockcroft, John, Sir, 1897-1967

Dirac, P. A. M. (Paul Adrien Maurice), 1902-1984

Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955

Elsasser, Walter M., 1904-

Feather, N. (Norman)

Gamow, George, 1904-1968

Gowing, Margaret

Grosse, Aristid von, 1905-1985

Hevesy, Georg von, 1885-1966

Holt, R. J. (Roy J.)

Howie, Mildred Evelyn Carter

Joliot-Curie, Frédéric

Joliot-Curie, Irène

Kowarski, Lew

Lawrence, Ernest Orlando, 1901-1958

Livingston, M. Stanley (Milton Stanley)

Merrison, A. W.

Nernst, Walther, 1864-1941

Nix, Foster Cary, 1905-

Occhialini, Giuseppe, 1907-1993

Oliphant, Mark, 1901-2000

Oppenheimer, Frank, 1912-1985

Peierls, Rudolf E. (Rudolf Ernst), 1907-1995

Placzek, G. (George), 1905-1955

Richardson, O. W. (Owen Willans), 1879-1959

Robson, J. M. (John Michael), 1920-1980

Rosenfeld, L. (Leon), 1904-1974

Runcorn, S. K.

Sayles, Todd A.

Shankland, Robert S., 1908-

Shapiro, Maurice M. (Maurice Mandel), 1915-

Shenstone, A. G. (Allen Goodrich)

Tuve, Merle Antony, 1901-1982

Ward, F. A. B. (Francis Alan Burnett)

Wertenstein, Ludwik, 1887-1945

Institutions

Major Positions

Gonville and Caius College

Fellow and Master, part of Cambridge University.

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

Head of British Mission attached to Manhattan Project.

Manhattan Project (U.S.)

Head of British Mission attached to Manhattan Project, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.

Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (Germany)

Research Scientist.

University of Liverpool. Physics Department

Lyon Jones Chair of Physics.

University of Manchester. Physics Department

Obtained BSc honours in Physics (1911) and MSc in Physics (1913). Research Assistant, Physical Laboratory.

Professional Activities & Affiliations

American Institute of Physics

American Physical Society

Member.

Franklin Institute (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Awarded 1951 Franklin Medal.

Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen

Foreign Member.

MAUD Committee, 1940-1941

Member.

Pontificia Accademia delle scienze

Member.

Royal Society (Great Britain)

Fellow and awarded 1932 Hughes Medal.

Royal Society of Edinburgh

Member.

United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority

Member.

University of Cambridge. Department of Physics

Obtained PhD in Physics (1921).

Resources

Archival Resources

Author

James Chadwick conversation with A. W. Merrison, 1968.

Sydney Jones Library. Special Collections and Archives

University of Liverpool

P. O. Box 123, Liverpool L69 3DA

James Chadwick correspondence with F. A. B. Ward, 1938.

Library

Science Museum (Great Britain)

Imperial College Road, London SW7 5NH, England, UK

Oral history interview with James Chadwick, 1969 April 15, 16, 17 and 20.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Sir James Chadwick papers, 1914-1974.

Archives Centre

Churchill College

Cambridge B3 0DS

Sir James Chadwick papers, 1921-1974.

Sydney Jones Library. Special Collections and Archives

University of Liverpool

P. O. Box 123, Liverpool L69 3DA

Subject

AIP Physics Today Division unpublished letters to the editors, 1972-1983.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Allen Shenstone autobiography, 1962.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Charles David King collection for his thesis "Chadwick, Liverpool and the bomb" (1997).

Sydney Jones Library. Special Collections and Archives

University of Liverpool

P. O. Box 123, Liverpool L69 3DA

Egon Bretscher papers and correspondence, 1896-1973.

Archives Centre

Churchill College

Cambridge B3 0DS

Eric Sayle recollections, 1942-1947.

Sydney Jones Library. Special Collections and Archives

University of Liverpool

P. O. Box 123, Liverpool L69 3DA

Ernest Rutherford correspondence [microform], 1906-1937.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Files of Ludwik Wertenstein, 1908-1944.

Archiwum (Warszawa)

Polska Akademia Nauk

Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

Georg von Hevesy scientific correspondence, 1910-1966.

Niels Bohr Archive

Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen, Denmark

George Placzek papers, 1934-1955, undated.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

J. M. Robson response to 1988 History of Nuclear Physics Survey, 1988.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Kenneth Bainbridge correspondence with James Chadwick and Mark Oliphant, 1973-1974.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

L. H. Gray papers, 1932-1970 (bulk 1944-1965).

Special Collection Library

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

James D. Hoskins Library, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

Lecture on Sir James Chadwick, 1978.

Sydney Jones Library. Special Collections and Archives

University of Liverpool

P. O. Box 123, Liverpool L69 3DA

Margaret Gowing papers, 1932-[ongoing].

Museum of the History of Science

Broad Street, Oxford OX1 3AZ

Mildred Howie student research files on cyclotrons, 1939.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Norman Feather papers, 1915-1978.

Archives Centre

Churchill College

Cambridge B3 0DS

Nuclear reminiscences [motion picture].

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

O. W. Richardson papers, 1897-1959 (bulk 1920-1940).

Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center

University of Texas at Austin

P.O. Drawer 7219, Austin, TX 78713-7219, USA

Oral history interview with Aristid Victor Grosse, 1974 January 11 and April 5.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Edoardo Amaldi, 1969 April 9 and 10.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Foster Cary Nix, 1975 June 27.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Frank Oppenheimer, 1973 February 9 and May 21.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with George Gamow, 1968 April 25 and 26.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Giuseppe Occhialini, 1971 April 5, 6, May 16, 17, and November 18.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with J. Robert Oppenheimer, 1963 November 18 and 20.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Joseph Rotblat, 1992-1993.

Sydney Jones Library. Special Collections and Archives

University of Liverpool

P. O. Box 123, Liverpool L69 3DA

Oral history interview with Leon Rosenfeld, 1968 September 3.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Lew Kowarski, 1969 March 20, October 19, 20, 21, 1970 May 3, 14, 1971 May 15 and November 20.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Maurice Goldhaber, 1967 January 10.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Maurice Mandel Shapiro, 1978 May 30.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Milton Stanley Livingston, 1967 August 21.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Norman Feather, 1971 February 25 and 5 November.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral History interview with Philip I. Dee, 1971 November 5.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Rudolf Ernst Peierls, 1969 August 11, 12 and 13.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with S. Keith Runcorn, 1993 September 16 and 17.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Sir John Cockcroft, 1967 March 28.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Sir Mark Oliphant, 1971 November 3.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Pais Prize Lecture: Relations Between Physics and History of Physics [sound recording], 2013 April 15.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Private office papers, 1939-1961.

Great Britain, National Archives

Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 4DU, UK

Sir Joseph Rotblat papers.

Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs

63a Great Russell St., London WC1B 3BJ, UK

Published Resources

Author

Radiations from radioactive substances/ by Sir Ernest Rutherford, James Chadwich, and C. D. Ellis.

Radioactivity and radioactive substances: an introduction to the study of radioactive substances and their radiations/ the nature of radioactivity and the bearing of radioactive transformations on the structure of the atom, by J. Chadwick, with foreword by Sir Ernest Rutherford.

Subject

Encyclopaedic Britannica - James Chadwick.

James Chadwick Nobel Prize biography.

The neutron and the bomb: a biography of Sir James Chadwick/ Andrew Brown.

Uranium isotope separation in the U.K. during World War II/ by Thomas Vincent Attwood.