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Table of Contents

Biography

AbstractImportant DatesOccupationPlacesSubjects

Relationships

PeopleInstitutions

Resources

Archival as AuthorArchival as SubjectPublished as AuthorPublished as Subject

Robert Sanderson Mulliken

Photo

Dates

June 7, 1896 – October 31, 1986

Authorized Form of Name

Mulliken, Robert Sanderson

Additional Forms of Names

Mulliken, Robert S. (Robert Sanderson)

Biography

Abstract

Robert Mulliken was Ernest DeWitt Burton Distinguished Service Professor of Physics and Chemistry at Universiy of Chicago (1961-1986). Other institutional affiliations include New York University. His research interests included valence theory and molecular structure. In 1966, Mulliken won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Important Dates

June 7, 1896Birth, Newburyport (Mass.).

1917Obtained BS in Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge (Mass.).

1917 – 1918Junior Chemical Engineer, Bureau of Mines, United States Department of the Interior.

1919Assistant in Rubber Research, New Jersey Zinc Company.

1921Obtained PhD in Physical Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago (Ill.).

1921 – 1925National Research Council (NRC) Fellow, University of Chicago and Harvard University.

19269 – 1928Assistant Professor of Physics, Washington Square College, New York University.

1928 – 1986Associate Professor of Physics (1928-1931); Professor of Physics (1931-1961); and Ernest DeWitt Burton Distinguished Service Professor of Physics and Chemistry (1961-1986), University of Chicago, Chicago (Ill.).

1936Member, National Academy of Sciences.

1941Member, Advisory Committee on Uranium Research, National Academy of Sciences.

1942 – 1945Researcher and Director, Editorial Work and Information, Manhattan Project, Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory.

1952 – 1954Fulbright Scholar, Oxford University.

1955Scientific Attaché, United States Embassy, London.

1965Jan Van Geuns Visiting Professor, University of Amsterdam.

1965 – 1971Distinguished Research Professor, Florida State University.

1966Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method".

October 31, 1986Death, Arlington (Va.).

Occupation

Physical chemist.

Places

Birth

Newburyport (Mass.)

Undergraduate Education

Cambridge (Mass.)

Graduate Education

Chicago (Ill.)

Employment

Chicago (Ill.)

Death

Arlington (Va.)

Subjects

Molecular orbitals.

Molecular structure.

Physical chemistry.

Relationships

People

Family

Heard, Lucia Maria Mulliken

Daughter.

Mulliken, Katherine W.

Mother.

Mulliken, Mary Helen von Noè

Wife. Married 1929.

Mulliken, Samuel Parsons, 1864-1934

Father.

Mulliken, Valerie Noè

Daughter.

Advisors & Collaborators

Barton, Henry Askew, 1898-1983

Co-wrote the article "The Beta Bands of Nitric Oxide. I. Measurements and Quantum Analysis."

Harkins, William D. (William Draper), 1873-1951

PhD advisor at University of Chicago, "The separation of isotopes. Theory of resolution of isotopic mixtures by diffusion and similar processes. Experimental separation of mercury by evaporation in a vacuum."

Löwdin, Per-Olov, 1916-2000

Advised by Mulliken at University of Chicago.

McConnell, Harden Marsden

Advised by Mulliken at University of Chicago.

Parr, Robert G., 1921-

Advised by Mulliken at University of Chicago.

Shaffer, Wave Henry

Advised by Mulliken at University of Chicago.

Colleagues

Allison, Samuel King, 1900-1965

Both employed at University of Chicago and Harvard University.

Anderson, Herbert Lawrence

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Ashcroft, Neil W.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Bethe, Hans A. (Hans Albrecht), 1906-2005

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Breit, Gregory, 1899-1981

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project, and Harvard University.

Bridgman, P. W. (Percy Williams), 1882-1961

Both employed at Harvard University.

Charney, Jule G.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Christy, Robert F.

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Cohen, Morrel H.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Compton, Arthur Holly, 1892-1962

Both employed at University of Chicago, and at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Crewe, Albert V.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Cronin, James W., 1931-2016

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Dempster, Arthur Jeffrey

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Eckart, Carl, 1902-1973

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Falicov, L. M. (Leopoldo Maximo), 1933-1995

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Fano, Ugo

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Ference, Michael, 1911-

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Fisk, Zachary

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Franck, James, 1882-1964

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Friedman, Francis L. (Francis Lee), 1918-

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Friedman, Jerome I. (Jerome Isaac), 1930-

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Fritzsche, Hellmut

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Garwin, Richard L.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Goldberger, Marvin L.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Hartle, J. B. (James B.)

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Hilberry, Norman, 1899-

Both employed at University of Chicago, New York University, and at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Kadanoff, Leo P.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Kemble, Edwin C. (Edwin Crawford), 1889-

Both employed at Harvard University.

Konopinski, Emil Jan, 1911-

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Koshiba, Masatoshi, 1926-

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Libchaber, Albert J.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Loomis, F. W. (Francis Wheeler), 1889-1976

Both employed at New York University.

Lyman, Theodore, 1874-1954

Both employed at Harvard University.

Mason, Max, 1877-1961

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Massey, Walter E.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Mayer, Joseph Edward, 1904-

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Mayer, Maria Goeppert, 1906-1972

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Metropolis, N. (Nicholas), 1915-

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Michelson, Albert A. (Albert Abraham), 1852-1931

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Millikan, Robert Andrews, 1868-1953

Both employed at the University of Chicago.

Murray, Forest

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Nagel, Sidney R.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Nambu, Yoichiro, 1921-2015

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Ohlinger, Leo

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1904-1967

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Phillips, J. C.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Pierce, George Washington, 1872-1956

Both employed at Harvard University.

Plass, Gilbert N.

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Rossi, Bruno, 1905-1993

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Sachs, Robert Green, 1916-

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Saunders, Frederick A. (Frederick Albert), 1875-1963

Both employed at Harvard University.

Schrieffer, J. R. (John Robert), 1931-

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Serber, R. (Robert)

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Shochet, Melvyn J.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Simpson, John A. (John Alexander), 1916-2000

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Slater, John C. (John Clarke), 1900-1976

Both employed at Harvard University.

Swann, W. F. G. (William Francis Gray), 1884-1962

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Szilard, Leo

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Telegdi, Val, 1922-2006

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Teller, Edward, 1908-2003

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project and University of Chicago.

Thomas, Tracy Y. (Tracy Yerkes), 1899-1983

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Treiman, Sam B.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Tsui, D. C. (Daniel Chee), 1939-

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Turkevich, Anthony, 1916-2002

Advised by Mulliken at University of Chicago and both employed at University of Chicago.

Van Vleck, J. H. (John Hasbrouck), 1899-1980

Both employed at Harvard University.

Wald, Robert M.

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Weinberg, Alvin Martin, 1915-2006

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Wentzel, Gregor, 1898-1978

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Wheeler, John Archibald, 1911-2008

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Wigner, Eugene Paul, 1902-1995

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Williams, John H. (John Harry), 1908-

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Yang, Chen Ning, 1922-

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Young, Gale Jay

Both employed at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project.

Zener, Clarence, 1905-

Both employed at University of Chicago.

Additional

Alvarez, Luis W., 1911-1988

Bloomenthal, Sidney, 1905-

Darrow, Karl K. (Karl Kelchner), 1891-

Ferguson, Walter Finnall Cross, 1898-

Heisenberg, Werner, 1901-1976

Herzberg, Gerhard, 1904-1999

Hund, Friedrich, 1896-1997

Kolos, Wlodzimierz

Noyes, William A. (William Albert), 1857-1941

Roe, Anne, 1904-1991

Urey, Harold Clayton, 1893-1981

Institutions

Major Positions

Florida State University

Distinguished Research Professor.

Manhattan Project (U.S.)

Researcher and Director, Editorial Work and Information, Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory.

New Jersey Zinc Company

Assistant in Rubber Research.

New York University. Department of Physics

Assistant Professor of Physics.

United States. Department of the Interior

Junior Chemical Engineer, Bureau of Mines.

United States. Office of Scientific Research and Development. Metallurgical Laboratory

Researcher and Director, Editorial Work and Information, Manhattan Project.

Universiteit van Amsterdam

Jan Van Geuns Visiting Professor.

University of Chicago. Department of Chemistry

Ernest DeWitt Burton Distinguished Service Professor of Physics and Chemistry.

University of Chicago. Department of Physics

Obtained PhD in Physical Chemistry (1921). National Research Council (NRC) Fellow; Associate Professor of Physics; Professor of Physics; and Ernest DeWitt Burton Distinguished Service Professor of Physics and Chemistry

Professional Activities & Affiliations

Harvard University. Department of Physics

National Research Council (NRC) Fellow.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry

Obtained BS (1917).

National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)

Member, and Member, Advisory Committee on Uranium Research.

United States. Embassy (Great Britain)

Scientific Attaché.

University of Oxford. Department of Physics

Fulbright Scholar.

Resources

Archival Resources

Author

General interest session [sound recording] : American Physical Society Meeting, 1967 April 27.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Robert S. Mulliken, 1964 February 1.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Robert G. Parr addition to papers, 1935-2001 (bulk 1950-1995).

The Donald F. and Mildred Topp Othmer Library of Chemical History.

Chemical Heritage Foundation

315 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2702, USA

Robert G. Parr papers, 1945-2002 (bulk 1950-1990).

The Donald F. and Mildred Topp Othmer Library of Chemical History.

Chemical Heritage Foundation

315 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106-2702, USA

Robert S. Mulliken scientific offprints collection, circa 1930s-1985.

The Joseph Regenstein Library. Department of Special Collections

University of Chicago

1100 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

Robert Sanderson Mulliken papers, 1908-1985 (bulk 1920s-1985).

The Joseph Regenstein Library. Department of Special Collections

University of Chicago

1100 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

University of Chicago Tuesday Club records, 1943-1988.

The Joseph Regenstein Library. Department of Special Collections

University of Chicago

1100 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

Subject

Anne Roe papers, 1949-1971 (bulk).

Library.

American Philosophical Society

105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA

Archive for the History of Quantum Physics, 1898-1950 (bulk).

Library.

American Philosophical Society

105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA

Edwin C. Kemble papers [microform], 1919-1937.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Files of Wlodzimierz Kolos.

Archiwum (Warszawa)

Polska Akademia Nauk

Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland

J. H. Van Vleck papers, 1923-1959.

Library

American Philosophical Society

105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA

John Clarke Slater papers, 1908-1976.

Library.

American Philosophical Society

105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA

Oral history interview with Friedrich Hund, 1963 June 25 and 26.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Harold Clayton Urey, 1964 March 24.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Henry A. Barton, 1970 March 3 and 16.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with J. H. Van Vleck, 1963 October 2 and 4.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with John Clarke Slater, 1963 October 3 and 8.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Luis Alvarez, 1967 February 14 and 15.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Reviews of Modern Physics correspondence of John Torrence Tate, 1928.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

The return of Robert Mulliken to Chicago in 1928, circa 1978.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Walter Finall Cross Ferguson autobiography, circa 1964.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

William A. Noyes papers, 1870-1942.

University Archives

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

1408 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

Published Resources

Author

Life of a scientist : an autobiogrphical account of the development of molecular orbital theory with an introductory memoir by Friedrich Hund / Robert S. Mulliken ; edited by Bernard J. Ransil.

Selected papers of Robert S. Mulliken / edited by D. A. Ramsay and J. Hinze.

Subject

"Robert Sanderson Mulliken: 1896-1986", Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences

Nobel Prize Biography