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Table of Contents

Biography

AbstractImportant DatesOccupationPlacesSubjects

Relationships

PeopleInstitutions

Resources

Archival as AuthorArchival as SubjectPublished as AuthorPublished as Subject

Henry Norris Russell

Photo

Dates

October 25, 1877 – February 18, 1957

Authorized Form of Name

Russell, Henry Norris, 1877-1957

Biography

Abstract

Henry Norris Russel was Emeritus Research Professor of Astronomy at Princeton University (1947-1957). His contributions to astronomy included the color magnitude diagram; eclipsing binary theory and calculations; spectrum analysis, laboratory and stellar; the masses of stars, including analysis of visual double stars; the popularization of astronomy at a high level; solar and stallar composition and constitution; the origin of the planets and comets; characteristics of planetary atmospheres; the contacts of religion with science, and vice versa; and general consulting on all astronomical and spectroscopic problems.

Important Dates

October 25, 1877Birth, Oyster Bay (N.Y.).

1897Obtained AB, Princeton University, Princeton (N.J.).

1898Obtained AM, Princeton University, Princeton (N.J.).

1899Obtained PhD in Astronomy, Princeton University, Princeton (N.J.).

1903 – 1905Carnegie Assistant, Cambridge Observatory, Cambridge University.

1905 – 1957Instructor in Astronomy (1905-1908); Assistant Professor of Astronomy (1908-1911); Professor of Astronomy (1911-1927); Director, Princeton Observatory (1912-1947); Research Professor of Astronomy (1927-1947); and Emeritus Research Professor of Astronomy (1947-1957), Princeton University, Princeton (N.J.).

1918Member, National Academy of Sciences.

1918 – 1919Engineer, Bureau of Aircraft Production, United States Department of War.

1933President, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

1934 – 1937President, American Astronomical Society.

1944Research, National Bureau of Standards.

1948 – 1952Research Associate, Harvard College Observatory, Harvard University.

February 18, 1957Death, Princeton (N.J.).

Occupation

Astronomer.

Places

Birth

Oyster Bay (N.Y.)

Undergraduate Education

Princeton (N.J.)

Graduate Education

Princeton (N.J.)

Employment

Princeton (N.J.)

Death

Princeton (N.J.)

Subjects

Astronomy.

Planetary science.

Spectrum analysis.

Stars -- Structure.

Relationships

People

Family

Russell, H. (Henry), 1912-

Son.

Advisors & Collaborators

Menzel, Donald H. (Donald Howard), 1901-1976

Advised by Russell at Princeton University, "A Study of Line Intensities in Stellar Spectra."

Shapley, Harlow, 1885-1972

Advised by Russell at Princeton University, "The orbits of eighty-seven eclipsing binaries--a summary."

Spitzer, Lyman, 1914-1997

Advised by Russell at Princeton University, "The Spectra of Late Supergiant Stars," and both employed at Princeton University.

Stewart, John Quincy, 1894-1972

Co-wrote "Astronomy: A revision of Young's Manual of Astronomy" with Raymond Smith.

Young, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1834-1908

PhD advisor at Princeton University, "General Perturbations of the Major Axis of Eros by the Action of Mars."

Colleagues

Eisenhart, Luther Pfahler, 1876-1965

Both employed at Princeton University.

Additional

Aller, Lawrence H. (Lawrence Hugh), 1913-2003

Atkinson, Robert d'Escourt, 1898-1982

Baker, James Gilbert

Barton, Henry Askew, 1898-1983

Biermann, Ludwig, 1907-1986

Bowen, Ira Sprague, 1898-1973

Chandrasekhar, S. (Subrahmanyan), 1910-1995

Compton, Betty Charity McCloskey, 1916-

Dunham, Theodore, 1897-1984

Dupree, Andrea K.

Eckart, Carl, 1902-1973

Edmondson, Frank K. (Frank Kelley), 1912-

Edmondson, Margaret Russell

Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955

Greenstein, Jesse L. (Jesse Leonard), 1909-2002

Harrington, Marshall Cathcart, 1904-

Herring, William Conyers, 1914-

Hoffleit, Dorrit

Hubble, Edwin, 1889-1953

Huffer, Charles M. (Charles Morse), 1894-

Joy, Alfred H. (Alfred Harrison), 1882-1973

King, Robert B. (Robert Burnett)

Kron, Gerald Edward, 1913-

Locanthi, Dorothy Davis, 1913-1999

McCrea, William Hunter

McMath, Robert R. (Robert Raynolds), 1891-1962

Meggers, William F. (William Frederick), 1888-1966

Moore, Charlotte Emma, 1898-1990

Morgan, W. W. (William Wilson), 1906-1994

O'Connell, D. J. K.

O'Keefe, John Aloysius, 1916-

Olivier, Charles P. (Charles Pollard)

Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia, 1900-1979

Pease, F. G. (Francis Gladheim), 1881-

Plaskett, Harry Hemley, 1893-

Rohrlich, F.

Saunders, Frederick A. (Frederick Albert), 1875-1963

Schlesinger, Frank, 1871-1943

Schwarzschild, Martin

Sciama, D. W. (Dennis William), 1926-

Shane, Charles Donald, 1895-1983

Shane, Mary Lea Heger, 1897-1983

Shankland, Robert S., 1908-

Shenstone, A. G. (Allen Goodrich)

Struve, Otto, 1897-1963

Unsold, Albrecht, 1905-

Van de Kamp, Peter, 1901-1995

Wallace, Alfred Russel, 1823-1913

Wesselink, Adriaan Jan, 1909-1995

Wood, Frank Bradshaw, 1915-

Wright, F. E. (Frederic Eugene), 1877-1953

Institutions

Major Positions

Harvard College Observatory

Research Associate.

Princeton University. Department of Astrophysical Sciences

Obtained AB (1897), AM (1898), and PhD (1899). Instructor in Astronomy; Assistant Professor of Astronomy; Professor of Astronomy; Research Professor of Astronomy; and Emeritus Research Professor of Astronomy.

United States. National Bureau of Standards

Researcher.

United States. War Department

Engineer, Bureau of Aircraft Production.

University of Cambridge. Observatory

Carnegie Assistant.

Professional Activities & Affiliations

American Association for the Advancement of Science

President.

American Astronomical Society

President.

National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)

Member.

National Research Council (U.S.)

Princeton University. Observatory

Director.

Resources

Archival Resources

Author

Edwin Powell Hubble collection, 1900-1989.

Henry E. Huntington Library

1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, CA 91108, USA

Harvard College Observatory records, letters of condolence to Edward Charles Pickering regarding the death of Willamina Paton Fleming, 1911.

Archives. Pusey Library

Harvard University

Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Henry N. Russell correspondence [microform], 1890-1950.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Henry Norris Russell papers, 1894-1980.

Department of Rare Books and Special Collections

Princeton University

1 Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA

History of Modern Astrophysics collection, 1849-1979.

Library.

American Philosophical Society

105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA

Manuscript of article, The probable distance of Orion, and letter to Russell from Edwin B. Frost, editor of the Astronomical Journal, rejecting the manuscript for publication, 1907.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Mount Wilson Observatory records of George Ellery Hale, 1901-1925.

Henry E. Huntington Library

1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, CA 91108, USA

Otto Struve selected correspondence [microform], 1932-1945.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Robert R. McMath papers, 1916-1962.

Bentley Historical Library

University of Michigan

Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2113, USA

Theodore Dunham papers, 1926-1977 (bulk 1926-1955).

Henry E. Huntington Library

1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, CA 91108, USA

Subject

AIP Center for History of Physics grant proposals, 1961-1986.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Albert Einstein collection, 1913-1975 (bulk 1930-1955).

Department of Rare Books and Special Collections

Princeton University

1 Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA

Alfred H. Joy papers, 1910-1972.

Henry E. Huntington Library

1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, CA 91108, USA

American Astronomical Society records, 1897-1988 (bulk 1920-1980).

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Charles P. Olivier correspondence, 1915-1962.

Library

American Philosophical Society

105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA

Dedication of McDonald Observatory at Fort Davis, Texas [motion picture] / taken by Peter Van de Kamp.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Ebbe Rasmussen papers, 1928-1952.

Niels Bohr Archive

Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen, Denmark

Francis G. Pease papers, 1850-1937 (bulk 1905-1937).

Henry E. Huntington Library

1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, CA 91108, USA

Frank Schlesinger Allegheny Observatory correspondence [microform], 1905-1920.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Frederic Eugene Wright papers, 1924-1961.

Henry E. Huntington Library

1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, CA 91108, USA

Fritz Rohrlich correspondence, 1946-1955.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Harlow Shapley papers [microform], 1910-1923.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Ira S. Bowen correspondence, 1934.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Marshall Cathcart Harrington response to early 1930s Ph.D.s Survey, 1980.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Notes on lectures at Princeton by Henry Norris Russell and others, on such topics as astrophysics, statistical mechanics, and Dirac theory, and Laue lectures, circa 1930.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Adriaan J. Wesselink, 1977 September 23 and 1978 June 21.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Albrecht Unsöld, 1978 June 6.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Albrecht Unsöld, 1984 February 24.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Allen Goodrich Shenstone 1979 March 20.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Andrea Dupree, 2007 October 29.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Betty Compton, 1968 April 11 and 15.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Carl Henry Eckart, 1962 May 31.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Cecilia Helena Payne Gaposchkin, 1968 March 5.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Charles Donald Shane, 1967 July 11 and 14.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Charles M. Huffer, 1977 July 8.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Charlotte Moore Sitterly, 1978 June 15.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Charlotte Moore Sitterly, 1981 January 27.

NIST Research Library and NIST Archives

National Institute of Standards and Technology

Information Services Division. 100 Bureau Drive, MS 2500, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA

Oral history interview with Daniel Joseph Kelly O'Connell, 1976 August 31.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Dennis William Sciama, 1999 June 9.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Dorothy Davis Locanthi, 1977 August 3.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Ellen Dorrit Hoffleit, 1979 August 4.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Frank Bradshaw Wood, 1977 November 4.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Frank K. Edmondson, 1977 April 21 and 1978 February 2.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Frank K. Edmondson, 1996 October 30.

Office of University Archives and Records Management

Indiana University

Bryan Hall 201, 107 South Indiana Avenue, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA

Oral history interview with Geoffrey Burbidge, 1975 June 4

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Gerald Edward Kron, 1978 May 20.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Harlow Shapley, 1966 June 8 and August 25.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Harry Hemley Plaskett, 1978 March 29.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Henry A. Barton, 1970 March 3 and 16.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Henry Norris Russell, Jr., 1977 November 2.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Ira Bowen, 1968 August 9 and 1969 August 26.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with James Baker, 1980 June 9.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Jesse Leonard Greenstein, 1974 July 31.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Jesse Leonard Greenstein, 1977 April 7, July 21, 26 and 1978 May 19.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with John A. O'Keefe, 1993 February 2.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Lawrence H. Aller, 1979 August 18.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Ludwig Franz Benedikt Biermann, 1984 February 16.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral History interview with Lyman Spitzer, 1991 November 27.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Lyman Spitzer, Jr., 1977 April 8 and 1978 May 10.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Margaret Russell Edmondson, 1977 April 21.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Martin Schwarzschild, 1977 March 10, June 3, December 16 and 1979 July 19.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Mary Lea Heger Shane, 1967 July 15.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral History interview with Paul Routly, 1990 September 25.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Peter Van de Kamp, 1977 April 9 and 1979 March 18.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Robert B. King, 1992 March 8.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Robert d'Escourt Atkinson, 1977 April 22.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Robert S. Shankland, 1974 August 20 and 21.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with S. Chandrasekhar, 1977 May 17, 18 and October 31.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Theodore Dunham, 1977 April 30 and 14 April 1978.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with W. W. Morgan, 1978 August 8 and 9.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with William Conyers Herring, 1974 July 23, 29, and 31 October.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with William Hunter McCrea, 1978 September 22.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Robert d'Escourt Atkinson Selected correspondence [microform], 1927-1955.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Theodore Dunham Selected papers [microform], 1921-1979, (bulk 1930-1960)

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

William F. Meggers addition to papers, 1870-1973 (bulk 1906-1966).

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

William F. Meggers papers, 1917-1966.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Published Resources

Author

Astronomy : a revision of Young's Manual of Astronomy / by Henry Norris Russell ... Raymond Smith ... John Quincy Stewart.

Fate and freedom / by Henry Norris Russell.

In memory of Henry Norris Russell : sessions I and II of IAU symposium no. 80, The HR diagram, held at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., on November 2, 1977, and other materials in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Henry Norris Russell, October 25, 1877 / A. G. Davis Philip, David H. DeVorkin, editors.

The solar system and its origin / by Henry Norris Russell.

Subject

"A Fox Raiding the Hedgehogs: How Henry Norris Russell Got to Mt. Wilson," in The Earth, the Heavens, and the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ed. Gregory A. Good (Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union: 1994)

"Henry Norris Russell and the H-R Diagram," Sky and Telescope 55 (1978): 306-310

"Henry Norris Russell: 1877-1957", Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences

"Quantum Physics and the Stars, 2: Henry Norris Russell and the Abundances of the Elements in the Atmospheres of the Sun and Stars," Journal for the History of Astronomy 14 (1983): 180-222

"Quantum Physics and the Stars, 3: Henry Norris Russell and the Search for a Rational Theory of Stellar Spectra," Journal for the History of Astronomy 21 (1990): 157-186

"Steps Toward the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram," Physics Today 31 (1978): 32-39

"The Changing Place of Red Giant Stars in the Evolutionary Process," Journal for the History of Astronomy 37 (2006): 429-469

"Venus 1882: Public, Parallax, and HNR," Sky and Telescope 64 (1982): 524-526

Henry Norris Russell : dean of American astronomers / David H. DeVorkin.