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Table of Contents

Biography

AbstractImportant DatesOccupationPlacesSubjects

Relationships

PeopleInstitutions

Resources

Archival as SubjectPublished as AuthorPublished as Subject

Frits Zernike

Photo

Dates

July 16, 1888 – March 10, 1966

Authorized Form of Name

Zernike, Frits, 1888-1966

Additional Forms of Names

Zernike, F. (Frits), 1888-1966

Biography

Abstract

Frits Zernike was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953 "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope." His invention of the phase contrast microscope was not recognized for its worth for many years, only gaining popularity when Nazi’s seized and duplicated the technology during WWII. Zernike held positions at University of Groningen his entire career.

Important Dates

July 16, 1888Birth, Amsterdam (Netherlands).

1912Awarded a Gold Medal for work on opalescence in gases, Dutch Society of Science.

1912B.Sc in Chemistry, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands).

1913Assistant to Jacobus Kapteyn, Professor of Astronomy, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands).

1915Ph.D in Physics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands).

1915Lecturer in Mathematical Physics; and Professor of Theoretical and Technical Physics (1920), University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands).

1930Discovered the phase-contrast phenomenon.

1946Member, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.

1952Awarded the Rumford Medal, Royal Society.

1953Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope".

1956Foreign Member, Royal Society.

March 10, 1966Death, Groningen (Netherlands).

Occupation

Theoretical and technical physicist.

Places

Birth

Amsterdam (Netherlands)

Undergraduate Education

Amsterdam (Netherlands)

Graduate Education

Amsterdam (Netherlands)

Employment

Groningen (Netherlands)

Death

Groningen (Netherlands)

Subjects

Microscopy.

Optics.

Relationships

People

Advisors & Collaborators

Bouwkamp, C. J. (Christoffel Jacob)

Advised by Zernike, University of Groningen.

Kapteyn, J. C. (Jacobus Cornelius), 1851-1922

Advisor, University of Groningen.

Nijboer, B.R.A. (Bernard Roelof Andries), -1999

Advised by Zernike, University of Groningen.

Ornstein, L. S. (Leonard Salomon), 1880-1941

Collaborated on critical opalescence research.

Smits, Andreas, 1870-1948

Advisor, University of Amsterdam.

Additional

Gorter, C. J. (Cornelis Jacobus), 1907-

Lorentz, H. A. (Hendrik Antoon), 1853-1928

Oort, Jan Hendrik

Waals, J. D. van der (Johannes Diderik), 1837-1923

Institutions

Major Positions

Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen

Research Assistant to Kapteyn; Lecturer in Mathematical Physics; and Professor of Theoretical and Technical Physics.

Professional Activities & Affiliations

Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen

Member; and awarded Gold Medal for work as a student.

Royal Society (Great Britain)

Foreign Member; and awarded the Rumford Medal (1952).

Universiteit van Amsterdam

B.Sc in Chemistry (1912); and Ph.D in Physics (1915).

Resources

Archival Resources

Subject

Oral history interview with Cornelis Jacobus Gorter, 1962 November 13.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Oral history interview with Jan Hendrik Oort, 1977 November 10.

Niels Bohr Library & Archives

American Institute of Physics

One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Published Resources

Author

The collected papers of Frits Zernike (1888-1966) / ed.: Henk Kubbinga.

Subject

Molecular Expressions: Fritz Zernike biography.

Nobel Prize Laureate Fritz Zernike biography and facts.

Physics Today obituary for Frits Zernike.

Physics Tree: Frits Zernike professional relations list.

The Optical Society biography of Frits Zernike.