Links and Sources

Links to Related Sites

Sakharov Chronology with additional photographs and information.

More history of physics exhibits from the AIP Center for History of Physics.

The Nobel Foundation 1975 peace prize includes Sakharov’s autobiography and presentation speech.

The Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues has many annotated references and links, including these items involving Sakharov.

A blog entry on a Sakharov riddle at Scientific American by Gannady Gorelik.

History of Nuclear weapons from the Atomic Archive.

The “Installation” homepage.

Sakharov’s entry in the Nobel Prize Internet Archive.

Amnesty International (defending human rights).

An essay on war and democracy (S. Weart) and the Democratic Peace site (R.J. Rummel).


About Sakharov:

Altshuler, B.L., et al., eds. On mezhdu nami zhil. Vospominaniya o Sakharove. Moscow: Praktika, 1996.

Babyonyshev, A., ed. On Sakharov. New York: Knopf, 1982.

Bonner, Elena, Alone together / translated from the Russian by Alexander Cook. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1986.

Bonner, Elena, Vol’nye zametki k rodoslovnoi Andreia Sakharova. Moscow: “Prava cheloveka”, 1996.

Drell, S. and L. Okun. “Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov.” Physics Today (August 1990): 26-36.

Gennady Gorelik with Antonina W. Bouis. The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist’s Path to Freedom. Oxford University Press, 2005. 406 pp. (There is a Web presentation of this book at

Holloway, David. Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

Kapitza, S.P. and S. Drell, eds. Sakharov Remembered. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1991.

Lozansky, E.D., ed. Andrei Sakharov and Peace. New York: Avon, 1985.

Lourie, Richard. Sakharov: A Biography. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2002.

Roberg, Jeffrey L. Soviet Science under Control: The Struggle for Influence. New York: MacMillan and St. Martin’s, 1998.

Rubinstein, Joshua, and Alexander Gribanov. The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.

30 let “Razmyshlenij*” Andreya Sakharova. (Materialy konferentsii: K 30-letiyu raboty A.D.Sakharova “Razmyshleniya o progresse, mirnom sosushchestvovanii i intellektual`noj svobode”). Moscow, “Prava cheloveka”, 1998.

By Sakharov:

Sakharov, A.D. Progress, Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom. New York: Norton, 1968.

Sakharov Speaks. New York: Knopf, 1974.

Sakharov, A.D. My Country and the World. New York: Knopf, 1975.

Sakharov, A.D. Alarm and Hope. 1978.

Sakharov, A.D. Collected Scientific Works. New York, Basel: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1982.

Sakharov, A.D Memoirs. New York: Knopf, 1990.

Sakharov A.D. Trevoga i nadezhda. Moscow: Inter-Verso, 1990.

Sakharov, A. Moscow and Beyond, 1986 to 1989. New York: Vintage Books, 1992.

Sakharov A.D. Nauchnye trudy. Moscow: Tsentrkom, 1995.

Sakharov, A. Vospominaniya. Moscow 1996. 2 vols.

Image Credits

Unless noted below, the photographs used on this site were kindly provided by the Andrei Sakharov Archives at Brandeis University, Elena Bonner, Gennady Gorelik or AIP's Emilio Segrè Visual Archives.

The photo of Sakharov’s house at the "Installation" is by Igor Drovenikov.

The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty image is courtesy of the National Security Archive.

Photos of the Tsar Bomb, warheads in Russian Atomic Weapon Museum at Sarov, and drawings by Sakharov are from the website Soviet and Russian Nuclear Weapons and History.

Sakharov’s paper on the asymmetry of matter is courtesy E.L. Feinberg.

Sakharov’s note giving Agrest the address of his Moscow apartment is courtesy M.M. Agrest.

The Sakharov newspaper article and headlines are copright 1968 by The New York Times Company. Reprinted by permission.

The pamphlet Andrei Sakharov in Exile was published by the International League for Human Rights.