How do scientists get reliable information about the world? When we
are told of an "advance" of science, the language brings up a picture
of people marching resolutely ahead. A scientist "discovers" something,
as when an explorer of old pressed into an unknown valley. Other explorers
push onward, taking knowledge a "step forward." That would be a "progress"
in the old meaning of the word, a stately parade advancing according
In reality, after a scientist publishes a paper with an idea or observation, other scientists usually
look upon it with justifiable suspicion. Many papers, perhaps most of them, harbor
misconceptions or plain errors. After all, research (by definition) operates past the edge of the
known. People are peering through fog at a faint shape, never seen before. Every sighting must
be checked and confirmed. Scientists find confirmation of an idea all the more convincing when
it comes in from the side, using some entirely different type of observation or line of thought.
Such connections among different realms are especially common in a science like geophysics,
whose subject is intrinsically complex. Scientists may start with something they learned about the
smoke from volcanoes, put it alongside telescopic observations of Venus, notice the chemistry of
smog in Los Angeles, and plug it all into a computer calculation about clouds. You cannot point
to a single observation or model that convinced everyone about anything.
This doesn't look like an exploring team aiming into new territory. It looks more like a crowd of
people scurrying about, some huddling together to exchange notes, others straining to hear a
distant voice or shouting criticism across the hubbub. Everyone is moving in different directions,
and it takes a while to see the overall trend. I believe this is the way things commonly proceed
not only in geophysics but in most fields of science.
In these essays I have tried to show this process by connecting the dots among roughly a
thousand of the most important papers in the science of climate
change. For each of those thousand, scientists published another ten or so papers of nearly the
same importance, describing related data, calculations, or techniques. And for each of those ten
thousand, specialists in the particular subject had to scan at least ten other publications that
turned out to be less significant studies that offered minor corroborations, or perhaps
distracting errors, or that turned out not to be relevant at all. By pulling the main developments
above the tumult, these essays give a clearer picture than scientists could see at the time.
That is the traditional role of historians, whose key problem
is not so much to find information as to select and summarize it.
This Web site also offers something less traditional. Through these
thirty parallel essays connected by hyperlinks,
I hope to give an account that conforms to the manifold character
of scientific research better than could ever come from squashing
everything together into a single linear narrative.
Getting coherent explanations is harder in geophysics than in
relatively self-contained disciplines like astrophysics or molecular
genetics. Scientists in those disciplines address problems that
fall within a well-understood boundary. That boundary is roughly
congruent with a social boundary, defining a community. Typically
such a community can trace its origins to a few outstanding researchers
and teachers, inheriting their specialized knowledge, questions,
and techniques. The discipline has developed its own journals, scientific
societies, meetings, and university departments. Scientists develop
these social mechanisms partly to facilitate their work of training
students and raising funds for research. Still more, the social
coherence of the discipline is invaluable for their work of communicating
findings to one another, debating them, and reaching conclusions
about which findings are reliable.
For the process to work, scientists must trust their colleagues. How is the trust maintained? The
essential kind of trust comes from sharing a goal, namely, the pursuit of reliable knowledge, and
from sharing principles for how to pursue that goal. Integrity in telling the truth is one important
principle, but it is not enough: while scientists rarely cheat one another, they easily fool
themselves. Another necessary principle is to take things apart tolerating dissent,
every rational argument to be heard in public discussion. A third principle is to put things
together arguing out a consensus on important points, even while agreeing to disagree on
others. These principles and more are inculcated in training, and reinforced by daily
Maintaining trust is more difficult where the social structure is not cohesive. A community in one
specialty cannot thoroughly check the work of experts in another branch of science, but must
accept their word for what is valid. The study of climate change is an extreme example.
Researchers cannot isolate meteorology from solar physics, pollution studies from computer
science, oceanography from glacier ice chemistry, and so forth. The range of journals that climate
researchers cite in their footnotes is remarkably broad. This sprawl is inevitable, when so many
different factors do in fact influence climate. But the complexity imposes difficulties on those
who try to reach solid conclusions abut climate change.
In physics, I can say that a coin will fall with precisely such-and-such
an acceleration when you drop it. Not everything can be predicted
the physicist normally cannot tell whether it will land heads
or tails but the general movement is predictable with great
exactitude. The reliability of such physical laws can be checked
by a single person, or at most by one or two teams of physicists.
It is otherwise for a question like what the climate will do after
we double the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Here we encounter so many nearly chaotic influences that we can
know the main facts only roughly. And here the level of reliability
can only be established through checks and corrections by a variety
of scientific communities, each dealing with its own piece of the
Who made "the discovery of global warming" that is to say,
the discovery that human activities have very likely begun to make
the world warmer? No one person, but a dozen or so scientific communities.
Their achievement was not just to accumulate data and make calculations,
but also to link these together. This was patently a social process,
the work of many people interacting with one another. The social
process was so complex, and so important, that the last stage was
visibly institutionalized: the workshops, reviews, and negotiating
sessions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
The scientific community also included some skeptics
who believed that global warming was not likely at all. They pointed
insistently at all the places where climate theory was incomplete.
And amid the immense volumes of data now available, they found scraps
here and there that supported their views. They believed that "global
warming" was nothing but a social construction more like
a myth invented by a community than a fact like a rock you could
hold in your hand. After all, the critics pointed out, communities
of scientists had often held mistaken views, and then changed their
collective minds. You couldn't trust a clique of professionals,
they warned, whose very social cohesion might perpetuate the error
of a shared opinion. Hadn't experts once agreed to deny that greenhouse
warming was possible? Hadn't experts, as recently as the 1970s,
warned of a new ice age?
Most scientists found this not persuasive worse, hardly
even interesting. The critics' selected data and arguments looked
feeble when they were set against the enormous mass of evidence
for greenhouse warming. To be sure, half a century back, most scientists
had found Callendar's greenhouse warming
proposition implausible. But scientists back then had understood
that their ideas about climate change were based on no more than
a scatter of uncertain measurements and hand-waving arguments. Callendar's
proposition, although it flew in the face of ideas about climate
stability that scientists had long taken for granted, was only provisionally
set aside. It stuck in the minds of the experts, awaiting the coming
of better data and theories. Likewise during the controversies
of the 1970s, most scientists had explained time and again
that their knowledge was still too primitive to say whether the
climate would turn warm or cold. Their main point was that they
had now learned enough to give up the old confidence in stability.
By the end of the 20th century it was the critics, arguing for a
self-regulating climate, who were struggling to maintain a traditional
By that time, not only scientists but most people had reluctantly reached
a less comfortable view of the natural world and its relationship
with human civilization. The views of the public and of the scientific
community had necessarily changed together, each exerting pressure
upon the other. On the public side, gloomy news reports hammered
home how severely our technologies can change everything, even the
air itself. Meanwhile on the scientific side, knowledge of how climate
could change pushed ahead in a direction influenced by field observations,
laboratory measurements, and numerical calculations. Yet the advance
was constrained within limits set by the larger community's commonsense
understanding (and by the funding it provided). Eventually scientists
arrived at solid conclusions, as witnessed by consensus panel reports.
Certainly in a restricted sense one could call the resulting understanding
of climate change a product of human society, or as some would say,
a social construct. Scientists themselves sometimes spoke in such
terms, describing their understanding of climate as a stout edifice
constructed from the countless mutually supporting observations
But what does it mean to say understanding was "constructed"?
That is misleading language, no better than talking of scientific
"advance." Scientists were not a crew laying bricks according to
an architect's plans. The terms used in the previous paragraph come
from traditional models for the scientific research process, relying
on metaphors drawn from classical or even preclassical mechanics
a forward push or "advance," a "construction," a process
where ideas are swayed by "pressures" or "influences," where observations
"support" one another, and so forth. This language sounds like it
means something, but it doesn't really.
In recent years, historians of science and technology have increasingly turned instead to the
perspective offered by Darwin's insight on evolution through natural selection. The key factors in
the Darwinian model are reproduction, variation, and
selection. Where you find those, you may expect evolution and they are
indeed found in scientific research. Scientific ideas can be said to reproduce as they
pass from one scientist to another, or within the scientist's own thinking from one month to the
next. In these passages variations commonly arise, different ideas or combinations
of ideas. The variants compete with one another within the constraints of their environment
namely, the minds of scientists. Some are selected to survive and further reproduce.
As the process repeats over time, something quite different may evolve.(1)
Please notice that normal biological evolution likewise operates
upon systems of information. We say that traits such as the color
of feathers evolve, but the essential thing that changes is the
biochemical instructions for making the feathers. These information
packets are encoded in DNA molecules, conveniently organized in
genes. The difficulty in talking about Darwinian evolution for other
systems of information, such as scientific ideas, is that they are
not packaged in such neat units. We can talk vaguely about the evolution
of anything from a folk song to the design of a paper clip to an
entire national culture. Actually biologists have the same problem
of specifying just what evolves they argue over how far natural
selection acts on genes, on complexes of genes, individuals, communities,
species, and entire ecosystems. If we try to speak of the evolution
of ideas, it is even harder to identify just what entities reproduce
and vary and are selected.
I believe that it will pay to consider selection at the level
of what I will call "research plans." A research plan may
be defined as a cluster of associated ideas that are the intellectual
basis for a research activity that a given scientist (or team of
scientists) considers undertaking for a limited period of time.
A research plan offers an answer to the scientist's question: "What
shall I do next?" Normally the activity is intended to result in
some published scientific papers or reports. A research plan comprises
a set of more elementary ideas: theories and hypotheses, observational
and mathematical techniques, knowledge of the results of earlier
experiments and calculations, and so forth. If we imagine the research
plan as analogous to an individual creature, these more elementary
ideas are like the genetic elements that shape its form (although
we cannot push such analogies too far). The research plan is a broader
entity than a supposedly unitary idea such as "magnetic field."
It is narrower than the "research programme" which may occupy an
entire community of scientists for decades.(2)
A scientist's research plan can reproduce when a colleague
or student or the selfsame scientist finds it interesting, and uses
some of its elements in designing a new, related research plan.
Along the way, particular elements of the plan will be modified,
or new elements may be borrowed from other research plans; that's
the variation. Note that research plans are mortal
even if they succeed, that is itself their end but they can
spawn progeny, new research with variations in questions or techniques.
Productive scientists usually keep a number of possible plans
in mind at once. But a scientist can devote effort to only a few
of the many possibilities that fertile minds will conceive. Thus
research plans undergo selection in rigorous competition
with one another first within the originating mind, and perhaps
later in the discussions of funding agencies and so forth. It is
partly like the process of artificial selection practiced by animal
breeders. In research, however, by definition a scientist cannot
well predict the outcome of a particular line of inquiry; a plan
once started may prove ill-conceived and perish. So there is always
plenty of selection operating outside human intentions.(3*)
All this selection of research plans takes place purely within a mental environment.
The most important feature of this environment is the scientists'
stock of knowledge of the external world. Like a mutant mouse whose
fragile bones cannot hold it up against gravity, a scientific idea
will not endure unless it can stand up, in scientists' minds, against
what they understand from observations in the field or the laboratory.
An idea (unlike a mouse) never encounters natural facts directly,
but rather confronts a mixture of the observations, experiments,
and theories that scientists at that time accept. A scientist's
selection of a research plan also depends upon more general ideas
about which directions of inquiry are more or less promising. And
then there are perceptions about whether one can find the necessary
material resources: one will not pursue an unfundable project.
Environments set limits, but within these limits many different
paths of genetic descent are possible. It is a familiar fact in
Darwinian evolution that much depends on the particular sequence.
To be sure, key components of a successful scientific theory are
as rigidly determined by natural facts as the optics of the eye.
But there are more superficial characteristics that may be determined
somewhat arbitrarily by antecedents, like the color of an eye. These
characteristics can hold social importance (as eye or hair color
may). Many interesting features of the history of climate research,
such as the 1970s warnings of an imminent ice age, flourished on
this surface level. It is human history that determines just when
particular ideas emerged, and which ones were emphasized or neglected
in particular places and times.
The history of the scientific understanding
of climate can be described well in Darwinian terms. We can begin
by noting the great number and variety of ideas that germinated
(like Darwin's countless seeds), very few of which flourished and
had progeny. A research program first had to survive contact with
"common sense" for example, what sort of climate change seemed
possible at all to people of the day, whether scientists
or the public. The ideas driving the
research also had to survive tests against observations and calculations
of the actual air and sea. In this testing the particular program
had to do better than alternative approaches, within the mental
environment of the scientific community. For example, studies on
the influence of the Sun and of volcanoes
were repeatedly compared with one another, as matched against both
the historical record of temperature changes and theoretical calculations
of the effects of solar radiation and volcanic emissions. Meanwhile,
a program had to find sustenance in the material environment
for example, by drawing on the funding that geophysics researchers
won through addressing Cold War concerns. When a research program survived
all this it could give rise to a new generation of variants. Eventually
some ideas in the programs might evolve into conclusions, fitting
so well with empirical observations and other accepted ideas that
scientists perpetuated the conclusions in consensus panel reports,
and finally in textbooks.(4)
Looking at how variant research programs arose, we can even draw
an analogy with sexual reproduction, for many of the best ideas
came when a research program picked up an idea or tool through intercourse
with other programs. Although barriers to communication among the
diverse specialties impeded climate
research, the best scientists were always alert to developments
in other fields. Specific examples of fertile combinations of programs
from widely different fields are the work
of Wallace Broecker on the role of ocean biology in climate
change (should we call him an oceanographer or a geochemist?) and
the studies of Reid Bryson (a climatologist,
a meteorologist or a paleontologist?) on past climate catastrophes.
Half a dozen different kinds of projects fed into Roger
Revelle's crucial discovery of low ocean carbon absorption,
and a yet wider range of specialized work was indispensable for
computer models of the atmosphere.
The 1000-plus hyperlinks among the essays on this Web site give a
striking demonstration of the importance of cross-fertilization
in producing what a Darwinian would call new varieties.
Of course, whatever language we use to describe scientific work, we must take care to avoid
speaking of ideas as active entities inhabiting passive minds. The actual effective agents are
human beings. Research plans do not forage in the grass or jump at one another like mating
insects: it is scientists who ingeniously test them and combine them. Considering the entire
process, in a restricted sense one could surely call the eventual understanding of climate change a
product of human society.
We should not call it "nothing but" a social
product. Future climate change in this regard is like electrons,
galaxies, and many other things not immediately accessible to our
senses. All these concepts emerged from a vigorous struggle of ideas,
evolving through encounters with experiments, observations, and
rival hypotheses. Eventually most people were persuaded to agree
that the risk of global warming was real, regardless of the social
process that had led to the conclusion.
When people said that the prospect of global warming was "real"
(or even "true"), they were implicitly promising some level of reliability.
The IPCC was pressed to be as explicit as possible about that. When
the panel announced in 2001 that the current rate of warming was
"very likely" greater than any seen within the last 10,000 years,
they responded to criticism of earlier reports by adding a footnote
to define "very likely." They said it meant that they judged there
was a 90-99% chance that the result was true. The panel further
judged it "likely" by which they meant a 66-90% chance of
being true that the warming was largely due to the rise of
greenhouse gases.(5*) What
it might mean to call a result "true" remained open to debate; philosophers
have devoted lifetimes to pondering how a scientific concept might
somehow correspond to an ultimate reality. That ageless question
rarely troubled climate scientists, who took it for granted that
the future climate is as real as a rock, even if their knowledge
of this future thing could only be stated within a range of probabilities.
Our human comprehension of climate goes beyond scientific reports
into a wider realm of thinking. When I look at a snowless street
in January I may see a natural weather variation, or I may see a
human artifact caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Such perceptions
are shaped not only by scientists, but by interest groups, politicians,
and the media. With global warming the social influences run deeper
still. Unlike, say, the orbits of planets, the future climate actually
does depend in part on what we think about it. For what we think
will determine what we do.