was one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century. He is best known as a founder of quantum mechanics, the new physics of the atomic world, and especially for the uncertainty principle in quantum theory. He is also known for his controversial role as a leader of Germany's nuclear fission research during World War II. After the war he was active in elementary particle physics and West German science policy.

Note: This is a textual version of this exhibit. Our graphical exhibit is here.
The Early Years:
Family Matters
High School Student
The Youth Movement

Student Years:
University Student
The Sad Story of Heisenberg's Doctorate
Quantum Mechanics: Quantum Mechanic
The Uncertainty Principle
Triumph of the Copenhagen Interpretation

The Difficult Years:
Professor in Leipzig
Heading Fission Research
The Post-War Era: Reviving German Science
"Physics and Philosophy"
"Physik und Philosophie"

More Information:
Brief Chronology
Further Reading
Index of Site Topics and Special Features

This site is brought to you by David C. Cassidy, Hofstra University, and by the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics. Site created 11/98, revised 1/02. Bibliography of Heisenberg's Writings, by David Cassidy, added 3/01.

About this Exhibit
Other Physics History Exhibits
Bibliography of Heisenberg's Writings
Send Us Your Comments
Help us make more exhibits!

Sign up to find out when we put more exhibits online.

Center for History of Physics: E-mail: chp@aip.org, Phone: 301-209-3165.
1998 - American Institute of Physics and David Cassidy. One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3843. E-mail: aipinfo@aip.org . Phone: 301-209-3100; Fax: 301-209-0843.