was one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century. He is best known as a founder of quantum mechanics, the new physics of the atomic world, and especially for the uncertainty principle in quantum theory. He is also known for his controversial role as a leader of Germany's nuclear fission research during World War II. After the war he was active in elementary particle physics and West German science policy.

The Early Years:

Family Matters

High School Student

The Youth Movement

Student Years:

University Student

The Sad Story of Heisenberg's Doctorate

Quantum Mechanics:

Quantum Mechanic

The Uncertainty Principle

Triumph of the Copenhagen Interpretation

The Difficult Years:

Professor in Leipzig

Heading Fission Research

The Post-War Era:

Reviving German Science

"Physics and Philosophy"

"Physik und Philosophie"

More Information:

Brief Chronology

Further Reading

Index of Site Topics and Special Features

This site is brought to you by David C. Cassidy, Hofstra University, and by the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics. Site created 11/98, revised 5/02. Bibliography of Heisenberg's Writings, by David Cassidy, added 3/01.
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Bibliography of Heisenberg's Writings Comments? Send us your feedback!

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