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Lew Kowarski Papers, 1907-1987 (bulk 1930-1981)

Description of Collection


American Institute of Physics. Center for History of Physics.

College Park, MD 20740

Papers created by

Kowarski, Lew

Size of collection

14 linear feet

Short description of collection

The collection documents Kowarski's career in nuclear physics during and after World War II. It covers his work in the laboratory of Frédéric Joliot in Paris. The addition to the collection covers primarily his post 1950 work and chronicles the developments in the international community of atomic scientists, including the movement of European scientists.

Language(s) of collection


Biography of Lew Kowarski

Lew Kowarski was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, on February 10, 1907. His father, Nicholas, was a businessman, and his mother, Olga Vlassenko, was a singer. He received a degree in chemical engineering from the University of Lyons in 1928. Kowarski went on to study physics, earning both his B. Sc. (1931) and D. Sc. (1935) degrees from the University of Paris. He became a naturalized French citizen on November 16, 1939.

Kowarski's active work in nuclear physics began in 1937 under the direction of Frédéric Joliot at the Collège de France. In 1939, Professor Joliot, Hans Halban, and Kowarski formed a research team which performed the crucial experiments that established the possibility of a nuclear chain reaction. When war broke out in 1940, Kowarski and Halban fled to England under rather dramatic circumstances and continued their work at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge.

Kowarski was responsible for the design and construction of the first nuclear reactor in Canada (1945), and the first two reactors in France (1948 and 1952). He also played a key role in the founding of CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), and was named its first Director of Scientific and Technical Services in 1954. He was instrumental in developing CERN's computer capacities and went on to create the Data Handling Division, which he directed until his retirement in 1972. During this same time, he served as scientific advisor to the European Nuclear Energy Agency.

Kowarski published well over 100 papers, mostly in English, ranging in style from technical to popular. He held visiting professorships at Purdue University (1963-66), University of Texas at Austin (1967-71), and Boston University (1972-78).

Kowarski was a frequent speaker at scientific conferences in the United States and Europe. It was his desire to link research and scientific diplomacy through his travel and lectures. Later in life he became increasingly interested in the interaction of science and society and advocated bringing current and reliable information on nuclear technology to the public.

The distinctions bestowed on Kowarski included: Fellow, American Nuclear Society (1963); Decorated Officer of the Legion of Honor (1964); and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Citation Award (1968).

Kowarski married Dorothée (Dora) Heller in 1929. They had one daughter, Irène Denise (Mrs. Gérard Hacques), and divorced in 1947. He married Kathe A. Freundlich, July 23, 1948.

He died on July 30, 1979.

Scope and Contents of Collection

The Lew Kowarski Papers provide an important source of documentation for the early history of nuclear fission research and reactor technology, and the impact of this research and technology on society.

Most of the material deposited covers the years 1939-1973. Among the topics documented is the collaboration among Kowarski, Frederic Joliot, and Hans Halban in Paris in 1939 and 1940 that resulted in experiments which helped to establish the possibility of a nuclear chain reaction. Kowarski and Halban continued this work in Britain after the invasion of France in 1940. From 1945 Kowarski pioneered the development of nuclear reactors in Canada, and then in France. After 1951, his administrative work was chiefly at the European Council for Nuclear Research CERN (the bulk of Kowarski's files from his work at CERN remain at CERN). His interests extended from technical problems of reactor construction to issues of international cooperation.

The papers are divided into eight series: Bibliographies, Correspondence, Notes and Manuscripts, Documents, Personal Materials, Publications, Lecture Materials, and Diaries.

Among the several accounts of Kowarski's career which are available is his own "Notice sur les Titres et Travaux Scientifiques," dated January 1966, which consists of a curriculum vitae and summaries of his work in various specialties (Series I, B.1, F.1). The social and political context of Kowarski's work in 1939-1951 is discussed in "Scientists in Power," by Spencer Weart (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979).

Researchers should be aware of the Additions to the Lew Kowarski Papers (1907-1981) (see next paragraph). The first deposit and additions cover similar time periods but the first deposit has a substantially larger amount of earlier correspondence (late 1930s to 1950s) covering the period of Kowarski's pioneering research; the Notes and Manuscripts series in the first deposit is also from this earlier period (this earlier material has been indexed). Much of the correspondence in the additions relates to Kowarski's later (more administrative) work at CERN. Both collections include series of writings and publications, and lecture materials (with some duplication between collections but a larger selection in the additions). The first deposit only has series of diaries and of personal material. Overall there is some duplication between the collections but they are also complementary - both need to be reviewed to get the full picture.

The additions to the Lew Kowarski Papers document Kowarski's long and versatile career, and provide an important source of information on early nuclear fission research and reactor technology, the subsequent rise of nuclear science and its impact on society, and developments in the field of high-energy physics. Kowarski was an intellectual and social man who traveled frequently throughout the United States and Europe as a speaker, lecturer and advisor. He was an eloquent communicator with an extraordinary command of English and maintained life-long social and professional relationships with friends and colleagues throughout the world. Much of the correspondence is comprised of two-way communications since Kowarski kept carbon copies of his letters. Correspondents include: Luis Alvarez, Otto Robert Frisch, Samuel Goudsmit, William Frederick Miller, Joseph Rotblat, Maurice Shapiro, Victor Weisskopf, Eugene Wigner, and many others.

The collection covers the years 1930-1981, with the bulk of the material dated post-1950. Materials are in English and French, with a few pieces in German and Russian. Reflected in the correspondence and writings are insights into the social and political events of the day, and a chronicle of developments in the international community of atomic scientists, including: World War II and the movement of European scientists; the application of reactor technology; the social impact of nuclear technology; nuclear energy development at the U.S. atomic centers; the development of data processing devices in high- energy physics; the importance and uses of computers in science; international cooperation; and peaceful uses of atomic energy.

The collection contains a combination of manuscripts, notes, and reprints (many annotated) from which Kowarski drew his numerous writings and lectures. Kowarski's work at CERN was primarily administrative, involving lectures, travel arrangements, conference attendance, and the like. Except for his early work in atomic energy, and his involvement in establishing data processing at CERN (including the subsequent development of the Hough-Powell Digitizer) there is little information of a highly technical nature.

Restrictions on Use and Access

Open to approved researchers without restriction.

Use of primary source material in the Niels Bohr Library requires prior approval through an Application for Access, which includes a statement of research purpose and the names and addresses of two scholars as references. Access applications can be obtained by contacting the Library (telephone 301-209-3177; or e-mail The application can also be printed from our website.

Selected Search Terms

These papers have been indexed in the International Catalog of Sources for History of Physics and Allied Sciences (ICOS) using the following terms. Those seeking related materials should search under these terms.


Alvarez, Luis W., 1911-
Fermi, Enrico, 1901-1954.
Frisch, Otto Robert, 1904-
Goudsmit, Samuel Abraham, 1902-
Halban, Hans.
Joliot-Curie, Frédéric, 1900-1958.
Miller, William Frederick.
Rotblat, Joseph, 1908-
Shapiro, Maurice Mandel, 1915-
Szilard, Leo.
Weisskopf, Victor Frederick 1908-
Wigner, Eugene Paul, 1902-


Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (France).
European Nuclear Energy Agency.
European Organization for Nuclear Research.

Subject terms

Elementary paricles.
High energy physics.
Nuclear energy -- International cooperation.
Nuclear energy -- Social aspects.
Nuclear fission.
Nuclear physics -- Data processing.
Nuclear physics.
Nuclear reactions.
Nuclear reactors.
Particle accelerators.
Physical laboratories.
World War, 1939-1945 -- Science.

Occupation terms


Genre terms

Laboratory notebooks.

Arrangement of Collection

The order of the folders in the first deposit roughly follows Kowarski's own arrangement. The correspondence series is divided into several categories, within which items are arranged chronologically. In this series are copies of third-party correspondence sent to Kowarski to support his patent cases. The general and third-party correspondence prior to 1960 were indexed by Spencer Weart in 1973, as were the laboratory notes and reports, 1939-45. Indexed materials are noted with asterisks in the folder listing and the index of correspondents follows the folder listing.

The first deposit of materials consists of 9 boxes divided into 8 series. This material has been maintained as a distinct collection with a separate finding aid (including indices for Series II, III and IV - Correspondence, Notes and Manuscripts, and Documents).

Most of the correspondence in the additions covers the years 1960-1978 and arrived in chronological order, separated into incoming and outgoing. This arrangement was retained. There also were two sets of correspondence, 1953-1963, arranged alphabetically by correspondent, with incoming and outgoing together in chronological order; these two sets were integrated retaining the alphabetical and chronological arrangement. Several folders of miscellaneous correspondence from the early 1950s and late 1970s were kept as found, as subject files, since their contents are related. Some correspondence concerning writings and visiting professorships was left in context throughout Series II and III (Subject and Writings and Lectures).

Diaries were moved to an existing series in the first deposit and can be found in Series VIII (Folders 1, 3, 5-10). They cover the years 1932-1956 and include lab notes, daily appointments, accounts, notes on conversations, and travel dates.

The Lectures material (Series III) was found in several boxes, most coded by school and some in labeled folders. All coded materials and related matter have been brought together and arranged chronologically.

The Subject and Writings material (Series II) was largely coded or foldered by subject and organization. This material, received at different times, has been brought together and arranged chronologically. However, a portion of the Subject and Writings files (Series II F) was ordered according to a coded bibliography of Kowarski's work, 1930-1967; this arrangement was retained. The bibliography can be found in Box 14, Folder 8, along with additional copies annotated by Mrs. Kowarski beyond 1967. The subsequent folders of publications and writings are ordered according to the code numbers on the bibliographies.

There has been an attempt to adhere as closely as possible to Kowarski's arrangement and this has, in large part, been achieved with the coded materials. Folder titles have been retained when possible, though sometimes folders were relabeled for clarity. In some cases, subjects of particular note follow folder titles. The researcher should be aware that there has been no distinction made between personal, professional and family correspondence.

Material Separated from Collection

Photographs have been removed to the Emilio Segrè Visual Archives and replaced by photocopies.

Provenance and Acquisition Information

The papers were in Kowarski's home in Geneva at the time of his death and were the gift of Mrs. Kate Kowarski, his widow. Some papers were retained by Mrs. Kowarski, and the bulk of his files from his work at CERN were kept at CERN.

The first deposit was received as a gift from Mrs. Kate Kowarski by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library in 1980.

The second deposit was received as a gift from Mrs. Kate Kowarski by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library in 1982, 1983, 1984, and 1985.

Processing Information

The first deposit was processed in August 1981.

The second deposit was processed by Vickie Allen in April 1996.

Duplicate materials and rusting paper clips and staples were removed from the collection. Fading and deteriorating materials were photocopied onto acid-free paper and the originals removed except when there was some value in retaining them. All materials were rehoused in archival quality, acid-free folders and boxes. Any notations made by the processor to aid identification were made in pencil and enclosed in brackets. All other notations were on the materials when received and include notations by Mrs. Kowarski to clarify names of correspondents.

Related Collections

Lew Kowarski Oral History Interview, 1969-1971

Lew Kowarski photographs in Emilio Segrè Visual Archives

Wolfgang Gentner Oral History Interview

Samuel A. Goudsmit Papers

Jules Guéron Oral History Interview

Hans Halban Papers, 1939-1940 - Microfilm

Heinrich Adolf Medicus - 8-mm, b&w silent film

Administrative Information


Finding Aid to the Lew Kowarski Papers, 1907-1981 (bulk 1930-1981)


This finding aid has been encoded by the Center for History of Physics, American Institute of Physics as part of a collaborative project supported by a grant from the National Endowment of the Humanities, an independent federal agency. Collaboration members in 1999 consisted of: American Institute of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Northwestern University, Rice University, University of Alaska, University of Illinois, and University of Texas.


American Institute of Physics.
Center for History of Physics.

One Physics Ellipse
College Park, MD 20740

Published in 2000

Encoding Information

Machine-readable finding aid encoded in EAD v.1.0 by Clay Redding on May 9, 2000 from an existing finding aid using NoteTab Pro and C++ scripts created by James P. Tranowski (provided by Elizabeth Dow, Special Collections, University of Vermont). Any revisions made to this finding aid occurred as part of the editing and encoding process.

Container List

First Deposit (Subgroup I)

Series I: Bibliographies

Box 1 Folder 1 Bibliographies 1961-7

Series II: Correspondence

Box 1 Folder 1 General correspondence 1938-40
Folder 2 General correspondence 1941-5
Folder 3 General correspondence 1946-53
Folder 4 With Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique 1946-53
Folder 5 General correspondence 1954-8
Folder 6 General correspondence 1959-60
Folder 7 General correspondence 1961-3
Folder 8 General correspondence 1964-73
Folder 9 With historians 1954-66
Box 2 Folder 10 Regarding French patents 1954-8
Folder 11 Regarding French patents 1963-8
Folder 12 Third party correspondence: non-U.S. 1938-45
Folder 13 Third-party correspondence: non-U.S. 1946-59
Folder 14 Third-party correspondence: U.S. Feb-Nov 1939
Folder 15 Third-party correspondence: U.S. Feb-Dec 1940
Folder 16 Third-party correspondence: U.S. Jan-Jun 1941
Folder 17 Third-party correspondence: U.S. Jul 1941-Mar 1943
Folder 18 Personal & family correspondence 1937-68

Series III: Notes and Manuscripts

Box 3 Folder 1 Laboratory notes & reports 1939-40
Folder 2 Laboratory notes & reports 1939-45
Folder 3 Laboratory notes & reports 1942-5
Folder 4 Notes & memoranda 1946-66
Folder 5 Notes on nuclear technology 1945
Folder 6 Notes on "constantes physiques" reactor manual project c. 1946

Series IV: Documents

Box 4 Folder 1 General 1940-2
Folder 2 General 1943-5
Folder 3 Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (C.E.A.) 1946-51
Folder 4 C.E.A. 1952-8
Folder 5 Reports to Haut-Commissaire, C.E.A. 1950-3
Folder 6 Reports to Haut-Commissaire, C.E.A. 1954-61
Folder 7 International nuclear energy organizations 1961-4
Folder 8 International nuclear energy organizations 1956-60
Folder 9 "New Trends in Atomic Research..." 1961
Folder 10 Applications & affidavits for French Patents 1939-42
Box 5 Folder 11 Applications & affidavits for French Patents 1946
Folder 12 Applications & affidavits for (cont) French patents 1954-8
Folder 13 Applications & affidavits for French patents 1963-8
Folder 14 French patent specifications 1951-3
Folder 15 Transcripts of U.S. hearings on French Patents Jun 1957
Folder 16 Transcripts of U.S. hearings on French Patents Mar 1967
Folder 17 Transcripts of U.S. hearings on French Patents May 1967
Folder 18 Transcripts of U.S. hearings on French Patents May 1967
Folder 19 Transcripts of U.S. hearings on French Patents May 1967

Series V: Personal Material

Box 6 Folder 1 Biographical material
Folder 2 Transcript of interview c. 1970
Folder 3 U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Award 1968
Folder 4 Newspaper clippings 1936-51
Folder 5 Passes, identification papers
Folder 6 Diplomas
Folder 7 Miscellaneous

Series VI: Publications

Box 7 Folder 1 Articles by Kowarski 1949-70
Folder 2 Technical & scientific articles by others 1930-55
Folder 3 Historical & biographical articles by others 1945-73
Folder 4 Historical & biographical articles by others 1945-70
Folder 5 Miscellaneous articles by others 1951-75
Folder 6 ZOE 15th and 25th anniversary bulletins 1963 & 1973
Folder 7 Kowarski, Les avants-projets de distribution du Gaz, (Paris: Dunod, 1938), photocopy (A11)
Folder 8 Goldsmit, Bernard, Manuscript of book on atomic politics, with notes by Kowarski c. 1966

Series VII: Lecture Materials

Box 8 Folder 1 Lecture notes on nuclear physics 1952-4
Folder 2 Lecture notes from Univ. of Texas, Austin 1968-73
Folder 3 Lecture transcripts (Purdue) 1963
Folder 4 Lecture transcripts (Purdue) 1964
Folder 5 Lecture transcripts (Saline Water Conversion) 1965
Folder 6 Miscellaneous lecture & course notes 1947-73

Series VIII: Diaries

Box 9 Folder 1 Journal des Expériences 1932-1933
Folder 2 H. Halban & L. Kowarski, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge 14 July-31 Dec 1940
Folder 3 Five miniature diaries 1940-1946
Folder 4 Daily journal 1945
Folder 5 Journal March 1946-Dec 1948
Folder 6 Daily agenda 1949-1950
Folder 7 Typed journal Jan-Feb 1950
Folder 8 Daily agenda 1951-1952
Folder 9 Daily agenda 1953-1954
Folder 10 Daily agenda 1955-1956
Series Notes for Second Deposit (Subgroup II)

I. Correspondence, 1936-1978

Boxes 1-9

The correspondence is both social and professional in nature and covers a wide variety of topics of interest to Kowarski.

It is divided into three subseries.

A. Subject files, 1936-1952

Include wartime correspondence, material regarding Kowarski's efforts to obtain a U.S. visa, including news clippings, and one folder of miscellaneous material that remains as found.

B. Alphabetical, 1952-1963

Arranged by name of correspondent.

Includes incoming, outgoing, and some third party material. At the end of this subseries are three subject folders, 1957-1961, that were left in original context.

C. Incoming and Outgoing, 1963-1978

Reflects a change in arrangement that occurred in the early 1960s.

At the end of this subseries are two subject folders, 1975-1977, that were left in original context.

II. Subject and Writings, 1930-1981

Boxes 9-18

The earliest material contains Kowarski's research and lab notes and collaborative articles. The files also contain manuscripts, annotated drafts, notes, articles, reprints, and bibliographies that comprised his writings.

The arrangement is chronological.

A. Prewar to 1940

Includes research and lab notes, reprints, and manuscripts on crystal growth and municipal gas distribution.

B. Wartime, 1940-1945

Includes notes on fission research, neutron research, and the first Canadian reactor, ZEEP.

C. Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, 1946-1953

Consists of two folders containing notes on the U.N. Security Council and materials from Premier Congrès du Progrès Scientifique et Technique, Paris.

D. CERN, 1953-1972

Includes writings on computers and science, computing needs at CERN, partial manuscript for "Magnum Opus," and work and consultations for UNESCO, OEEC, and ENEA.

E. Post-CERN, 1972-1981

Includes Ford Foundation proposal and articles and reprints on energy and society, popular writings, and material from Groupe de Bellerive.

F. Kowarski's publications, 1930-1967

Follows the arrangement of a coded chronological list of Kowarski's published writings dated November 1967 (Box 14/8).

Includes copies of the list annotated by Mrs. Kowarski beyond 1967 and notes, manuscripts, articles, and reprints for many of these writings.

III. Lectures, 1960-1978

Boxes 19-22

This material is primarily handwritten lectures, lecture notes and transcripts, course materials, grade books, and related correspondence.

The arrangement is chronological, by location.

Container List

Second Deposit (Subgroup II)

Series I. Correspondence

A. Subject files, 1936-1952

Box 1 Folder 1 Correspondence and supporting documentation regarding French naturalization 1936-1940
Folder 2 Miscellaneous correspondence; includes correspondence with publisher regarding a biography of Irène Curie; and congratulatory telegrams on Fort Châtillon reactor 1936-1951
Folder 3 Wartime correspondence; includes personal correspondence with Andre Kostelanetz about Kowarski's brother, Kola 1941-1944
Folder 4 Wartime correspondence between Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge and Montreal 1943-1944
Folder 5 Correspondence with Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists regarding possible assignment; and with S. Goudsmit concerning political affiliations and problems obtaining visa 1948-1957
Folder 6 Correspondence regarding positions in the U.S., Australia, and Canada; includes a biographical sketch and list of publications 1950-1951
Folder 7 Correspondence regarding appointment at Johns Hopkins University and subsequent failure to obtain visa 1951
Folder 8 Correspondence with University of Chicago regarding invitation to participate in International Conference on Nuclear Physics; and with Bulletin of Atomic Scientists regarding failed visa efforts 1952

B. Alphabetical, 1952-1963

Box 1 Folder 9 Correspondence, A 1952-1963
Folder 10 Correspondence, B 1954-1963
Folder 11 Correspondence, C 1955-1963
Folder 12 Correspondence, D 1954-1962
Folder 13 Correspondence, E-F 1953-1963
Box 2 Folder 1 Correspondence, G 1954-1963
Folder 2 Correspondence, H-I 1954-1962
Folder 3 Correspondence, J-L 1954-1963
Folder 4 Correspondence, M-O 1954-1963
Folder 5 Correspondence, P-Q 1954-1962
Folder 6 Correspondence, R 1952-1963
Folder 7 Correspondence, Sa-Sh 1953-1963
Folder 8 Correspondence, Si-Sz 1954-1961
Folder 9 Correspondence, T-Z 1952-1962
Folder 10 Correspondence regarding a possible visit to Jules Romain which did not happen 1957
Box 3 Folder 1 Correspondence regarding granting of U.S. visa and subsequent trips to U.S. atomic centers 1957-1960
Folder 2 Correspondence regarding travel plans for trip to United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and regarding short-term position as U.N. scientific advisor for conference on science and technology 1960-1961

C. Incoming and Outgoing, 1963-1978

Box 3 Folder 3 Incoming correspondence 1963
Folder 4 Incoming correspondence Jan-June, 1964
Folder 5 Incoming correspondence July-Dec, 1964
Folder 6 Incoming correspondence
Folder 7 Incoming correspondence Aug-Dec, 1965
Folder 8 Incoming correspondence Jan-April, 1966
Box 4 Folder 1 Incoming correspondence May-Aug, 1966
Folder 2 Incoming correspondence Sept-Dec, 1966
Folder 3 Incoming correspondence Jan-April, 1967
Folder 4 Incoming correspondence May-Aug, 1967
Folder 5 Incoming correspondence Sept-Dec, 1967
Folder 6 Incoming correspondence Jan-June, 1968
Folder 7 Incoming correspondence July-Dec, 1968
Box 5 Folder 1 Incoming correspondence Jan-May, 1969
Folder 2 Incoming correspondence June-Dec, 1969
Folder 3 Incoming correspondence Jan-April, 1970
Folder 4 Incoming correspondence May-Aug, 1970
Folder 5 Incoming correspondence Sept-Dec, 1970
Folder 6 Incoming correspondence Jan-June, 1971
Folder 7 Incoming correspondence July-Dec, 1971
Box 6 Folder 1 Incoming correspondence Jan-June, 1972
Folder 2 Incoming correspondence July-Dec, 1972
Folder 3 Incoming correspondence Jan-June, 1973
Folder 4 Incoming correspondence July-Dec, 1973
Folder 5 Incoming correspondence Jan-June, 1974
Folder 6 Incoming correspondence July-Dec, 1974
Folder 7 Incoming correspondence Jan-June, 1975
Box 7 Folder 1 Incoming correspondence July-Dec, 1975
Folder 2 Incoming correspondence 1976
Folder 3 Incoming correspondence 1977-1978
Folder 4 Outgoing correspondence 1963
Folder 5 Outgoing correspondence 1964
Folder 6 Outgoing correspondence Jan-June, 1965
Folder 7 Outgoing correspondence July-Dec, 1965
Folder 8 Outgoing correspondence Jan-June, 1966
Folder 9 Outgoing correspondence July-Dec, 1966
Box 8 Folder 1 Outgoing correspondence Jan-June, 1967
Folder 2 Outgoing correspondence July-Dec, 1967
Folder 3 Outgoing correspondence 1968
Folder 4 Outgoing correspondence 1969
Folder 5 Outgoing correspondence Jan-June, 1970
Folder 6 Outgoing correspondence July-Dec, 1970
Folder 7 Outgoing correspondence Jan-June, 1971
Folder 8 Outgoing correspondence July-Dec, 1971
Folder 9 Outgoing correspondence 1972
Box 9 Folder 1 Outgoing correspondence Jan-June, 1973
Folder 2 Outgoing correspondence July-Dec, 1973
Folder 3 Outgoing correspondence Jan-June 1974
Folder 4 Outgoing correspondence July-Dec 1974
Folder 5 Outgoing correspondence 1975
Includes completed Pugwash questionnaire
Folder 6 Outgoing correspondence 1976
Folder 7 Outgoing correspondence 1977-1978
Folder 8 Correspondence regarding publication of proposed book: "Scientists vs. Society" (incoming and outgoing) 1975-1976
Folder 9 Correspondence regarding Workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies report; and on proposed thorium fuel cycle symposium (incoming and outgoing) 1977

Series II. Subject and Writings

A. Prewar to 1940

Box 9 Folder 10 Early work on surface physics and crystal growth; includes notebook and graphs 1931-1932
Folder 11 Early work on crystal growth; includes mimeographed report, not dated
Folder 12 Reprints by others on municipal gas distribution and transport 1932-1937
Folder 13 Early research on the distribution of municipal gas 1934-1935
Box 10 Folder 1 Notes and calculations on the distribution of municipal gas; includes two reprints by others dated 1927 and 1935, 1934-1940
Folder 2 Manuscript for "Les Avants-Projects de Distribution du Gaz" (A 11); includes related correspondence 1938
Folder 3 Notes for a popular talk not dated

B. Wartime, 1940-1945

Box 10 Folder 4 Report on fission research and discussion of experiment carried out in Cambridge Sept-Dec, 1940
Folder 5 Notes for an experiment, remarks on absolute measurements of neutron sources, notes and chart for program of the Slow Neutron Team, list of reports 1940-1945, 1940-1945
Folder 6 Comments on the Fermi-Urey Conference of March 6-8, 1943 regarding review of the Cambridge fission experiment 1943
Folder 7 Notes on design of Canadian pilot reactor, ZEEP (Zero Energy Experimental Pile) 1944-1946
Folder 8 Personal summary of Volkoff's lectures, Montreal- handwritten notes 1945-1946

C. Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, 1946-1953

Box 10 Folder 9 Notes regarding U.N. Security Council July 1946
Folder 10 Programs, report and correspondence regarding the Premier Congrès du Progrès Scientifique et Technique 1951

D. CERN, 1953-1972

Box 10 Folder 11 Programs, reprints and correspondence regarding international conferences 1956-1959
Folder 12 Materials regarding consultant work for UNESCO on matters related to the United Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy 1955-1956
Folder 13 Correspondence related to UNESCO work 1955-1956
Folder 14 OEEC (Organization for European Economic Cooperation) papers from Study Group on Experimental Reactors 1956-1957
Folder 15 OEEC papers on Experimental Heavy Water Reactor Project - "Ingrid" (Sweden) 1958-1959
Box 11 Folder 1 Swedish Heavy Water Project - "Ingrid" 1958-1959
Folder 2 Correspondence regarding Swedish Heavy Water Project - "Ingrid" 1958-1959
Folder 3 ENEA (European Nuclear Energy Agency) - miscellaneous projects; includes OEEC reports and reprints 1956-1958
Folder 4 Notes on visits to U.S. atomic centers following granting of visa 1957-1959
Folder 5 ENEA projects; includes papers and reports by others, and news clippings 1959-1960
Folder 6 Publications and conference material on high-energy physics and visual data handling; Estimate of Future Computing Needs of CERN; includes correspondence 1960-1964
Folder 7 Notes on conferences; Development of Experimental Techniques (CERN); brief biography and bibliography; bibliography with comments: Holograms for Bubble Chambers 1965-1966
Folder 8 ENEA conference, Paris: concluding remarks 1966
Folder 9 ENEA project: NELT- Study of nuclear energy as a long-term energy source in Europe 1967
Folder 10 ENEA project: Correspondence related to study of nuclear energy as a long-term energy source in Europe (NELT) 1967
Box 12 Folder 1 Notes and drafts: international cooperation in science; Conference on Nuclear Studies, Grenoble; Expose de M. Kowarski; ORTF; Polly 1967
Folder 2 Notes on the Use of Computers at Brookhaven in High-Energy Physics Experiments with Electronic Detectors 1968
Folder 3 ENEA- Japan trip; includes correspondence 1968
Folder 4 "Magnum Opus" (Big Science): notes, partial draft and correspondence 1969
Folder 5 Recognition of Visual Data in High-Energy Physics- chapter for book, Computers and Their Role in Science 1968-1970
Folder 6 Papers for 9th Pugwash Symposium June 1970
Folder 7 Draft manuscripts: New Scientist article; European 300 GeV Accelerator Program; and Impact of Computers on Nuclear Science 1970-1971
Folder 8 United Nations consultations 1970
Folder 9 United Nations consultations 1971
Folder 10 United Nations consultations, related correspondence 1970-1971
Box 13 Folder 1 Computers: Definitions and History not dated

E. Post-CERN years, 1972-1981

Box 13 Folder 2 Reprints and manuscripts; includes notes on a conversation with P. Moeschler; and notes on consultations in America 1972
Folder 3 Ford Foundation: proposal for Geneva Science Policy Program 1971-1972
Folder 4 Ford Foundation: proposal for a study and travel grant 1972
Folder 5 Ford Foundation: correspondence related to study and travel grant 1971-1972
Folder 6 Notes, articles and reprints: CERN Courier, L'Express, Human Choice and Computers Conference, and Science Forum on Canadian CANDU system 1973-1974
Folder 7 Encyclopaedia Universalis article 1974
Folder 8 La Fleche du Temps- transcript of interview, AECL-Montreal 1974
Folder 9 Newspaper articles, notes, and reprints; includes article on ZEEP, note for A. Chayes on dominant nuclear technology and its rationale 1975-1976
Folder 10 Articles and reports on energy and society, energy developments and alternatives Jan-May, 1977
Box 14 Folder 1 Articles: includes letter to The Economist, manuscript for Le Savant Devant le Pouvoir, and reprint from History of Twentieth Century Physics June-Dec, 1977
Folder 2 Groupe de Bellerive- Declaration and list of members 1977
Folder 3 Groupe de Bellerive- Declaration, reports, and articles 1979
Folder 4 Articles by Jean Mussard; most from La Revue Polytechnique 1970-1978
Folder 5 Notes for conferences and articles; reprints of 1939 fission experiments by Halban, Joliot, and Kowarski; and Un Nouveau Rôle pour les Savants 1978-1979
Folder 6 Energie et Societe, UNESCO, Paris; collection of presentations given at colloquium sponsored by Groupe de Bellerive Sept. 1981
Folder 7 Energie et Societe, UNESCO, cont'd. Sept. 1981

F. Kowarski's publications, 1930-1967

Box 14 Folder 8 Liste des Publications Scientifiques et Techniques: coded bibliography of works (Codes below relate to this list.) 1930-1967
Folder 9 A5, A8 (Illustrations only), A14, A15, A18, A21, A22 1932-1939
Folder 10 A23 - A25 1940-1941
Box 15 Folder 1 A27 - A29 1941
Folder 2 A32, A33, A36 1942-1943
Folder 3 A42, A44 - A46 1946-1950
Folder 4 A47 1950
Folder 5 A48 - A51 1951-1953
Folder 6 A52 1954
Folder 7 A53 1949-1951
Folder 8 A54 1955-1957
Folder 9 A54 1955-1957
Folder 10 A55 1956
Folder 11 A56 1960
Box 16 Folder 1 A57 1961-1962
Folder 2 A57 1961-1962
Folder 3 A58 1961
Folder 4 A59 1962-1963
Folder 5 A60 1967
Folder 6 A61, A62 1958-1960
Folder 7 A63 - A65 1963-1965
Folder 8 A66 - A68 1965-1968
Box 17 Folder 1 B1 1956-1957
Folder 2 B3 1960
Folder 3 B3 1958-1961
Folder 4 B4 1960
Folder 5 B5 - B7, B9 - B11, B13 1946-1953
Folder 6 B14 - B20 1945-1953, 1965
Folder 7 B21 - B23 1953-1954
Folder 8 B24 1955
Folder 9 B25 1955
Folder 10 B26 1956
Box 18 Folder 1 B27 1957-1958
Folder 2 B28 1957
Folder 3 B29 1957
Folder 4 B30 1957
Folder 5 B31 1958
Folder 6 B33 - B36 1963-1965
Folder 7 B37, B38 1965
Folder 8 B39 - B42 1966-1967
Folder 9 B43 1968
Folder 10 B44 1968

Series III. Lectures

A. Europe and Canada

Box 19 Folder 1 Stresa: typed lecture with annotatations 1959
Folder 2 Saclay lectures 1965
Folder 3 Saclay course plan and lecture transcripts Dec 1965-Jan 1966
Folder 4 Saclay course notes and lesson plans 1966
Folder 5 Saclay conferences transcripts; poster 1966
Folder 6 Lectures: Palais de la Dècouverte and CERN 1966
Folder 7 Lectures: Dauphine, Lund, Malmö, Strasbourg 1967
Folder 8 Lectures: Bordeaux, CERN, Culham, Dubna 1968-1969
Folder 9 Lectures: Bordeaux, Cambridge, CERN, Lausanne, Varenna 1970
Folder 10 CERN seminar course, Trieste: Computing as a Language of Physics July 1971
Folder 11 Lectures: Chalk River, Geneva, Varenna 1971-1972
Box 20 Folder 1 Lectures: Geneva, Montreal, Strasbourg; includes note to J. Mussard 1973-1977
Folder 2 Erice: lecture materials 1975

B. United States

Box 20 Folder 3 California: lectures 1960-1974
Folder 4 Argonne National Laboratory, IL: lectures 1962-1964
Folder 5 Purdue University: notes, lectures, course materials, student profiles 1963-1964
Folder 6 Purdue University: notes, lectures, course materials, grade sheets 1964
Folder 7 Purdue University: lectures, course materials, news clippings 1965
Folder 8 Purdue University: transcripts of lectures 1966
Folder 9 Purdue University: discussions on the location of the 200 Bev facility April 1966
Folder 10 Purdue University: notes, lectures, and suggestions on nuclear engineering education 1966
Box 21 Folder 1 Purdue University: six lectures on Voicewriter discs 1966
Folder 2 Purdue University: correspondence related to visiting professorship 1963-1966
Folder 3 University of Texas: notes on desalting, lecture 1966
Folder 4 University of Texas: notes, lectures, course materials 1968
Folder 5 University of Texas: notes, lectures, course materials, grade book 1969
Folder 6 University of Texas: lectures, course materials 1970
Folder 7 University of Texas: lecture transcripts 1971
Folder 8 University of Texas: lecture notes, course materials, memo on problems at UT Austin; notes for Purdue and Utah 1971
Folder 9 University of Texas: correspondence related to visiting professorship 1967-1971
Folder 10 Boston University: lectures, course materials, grade book 1971-1973
Folder 11 Boston University: course notes 1973
Box 22 Folder 1 Lecture notes for Minneapolis 1973
Folder 2 National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL: lecture and correspondence 1974
Folder 3 Boston University: lectures, course materials 1974-1975
Folder 4 Boston University: lectures, course materials, energy conversion factors chart, and booklet 1976-1978
Folder 5 Boston University: correspondence related to visiting professorship 1971-1978

Partial Index of the First Deposit (Subgroup I) -- Correspondence of Lew Kowarski

Principal items not catalogued are: (1) most family letters, (2) all letters from 1960 on, (3) C.E.R.N. letters, (4) most letters dealing with French patents from 1954 on. In addition to letters, some memoranda, lecture notes, etc., are catalogued.

The box and folder numbers are in the left hand column. K=L. Kowarski. 51-53 5(8) means: between 1951 and 1953 inclusive, the collection contains 5 letters with a total of 8 sides. Letters between parties other than Kowarski are listed under both names for (this third party correspondence see senders name for the box/ folder location).

Precise information on the letters is on file cards located with the collection (Box 9). A large number of the letters are drafts, carbon copies, or reproductions. Original card indexed created by Spencer Weart, August 1973.

AKERS, Wallace A.

B.2 F.13 To Rapkine, L. 46 3(4); B.1 F.2-3 K 42-46 8(14) From Broda, Fenning, Freundlich, Guéron, Hereward, Kemmer, Maddock & May 43 1(2); Cockcroft 45 1(1); Halban, H., Jr. 43-45 2(4); Halban, H., Sr. 39 1(1); B.1 F.2-3 K 42-46 7(13)

ALLIER, Jacques

B.1 F.6 to K 60 1(2)


B.1 F.1 to K 45 1(1)


B.2 F.13 to Surdin 48 1(1)


B.1. F.3 to K 46 1(1)


B.1 F.2 to K 44 1(2); B.1 F.2 from K 44 2(2)


B.1 F.5 to K 55 1(1)


B.1 F.3 to K 46 1(1)


B.1 F.9 to K 66 1(1); from Blok, A. 46 1(1); B.1 F.9 K 66 1(1)

BLOK, Arthur

B.1 F.2 memorandum 1942 2p.; B.2 F.13 to: Biquard 46 1(1); B.1 F.2-3 K 45-46 2(2); B.1 F.2 from K 42 1(2)

BORST, Lyle B.

notes from lecture, Columbia physics colloquium, 10 Jan. 1946, 11p.


B.1 F.3 to K 46 1(2)


B1. F.5 to K 57 1(6)

BROCINER, Max (Compagnie Intercontinantale de Distribution)

B.2 F.13 to Dautry 50 1(2)


B.1 F.2 to Akers 43 1(2)

BRYNIELSSON, Hany (Aktiebologet Atomenergei)

B.2 F.13 to Dautry 51 1(1); B.1 F.3 C.E.R.N. memorandum 1953 2p.


B.1 F.1 memorandum 1942 1p.; B.1 F.2-3 to K 42-49 4(7); from: Egerton 41 1(1); B.1 F.2-3 K 42-49 3(4); May, A.N. 42 1(1)


B.2 F.12 to: Akers 45 1(1); B.2 F.12 Halban, H., Jr. 40 1(1); B.1 F.2-3 K 44-49 5(5); from: Halban, H., Jr. 41 1(1); B.1 F.3 K 49 1(1); Rapkine 44-45 2(3)

COHEN, Mlle. M. (French Embassy, London)

B.1 F.3 from K 47 1(1)

COLONNETTI, G. (Consiglio Nazionale della Ricerche, Italy)

B.2 F.13 to Dautry 50 1(1)


B.1 F.4 to: Houet 51 1(1); B.1 F.4 K 49-51 9(9); B.1 F.4 & B.2 F.13 Lescop 50-51 13(13); from: Brociner 50 1(1); Brynielsson 51 1(1); Colonnetti 50 1(1); Desbordes 50 1(1); Directeur Général des Douanes 51 1(1); Gravier 51 1(1); Houet, Picard, Dautriche, Jugeau 51 1(4); Joliot-Curie, F. 40 1(6); B.1 F.4 K 50-51 6(12); Lescop 51 1(1); Perrin, F. 51 1(1); Ragey 51 1(1); Vidal 51 1(1)


from Halban, H., Jr. 43 1(1)


B.1 F.2 to K 42-44 2(3); B.1 F.2 from K 44-45 2(2)


B.2 F.13 to Dautry 50 1(1)


B.1 F.1 from K 40 1(4)


B.2 F.13 to Dautry, 51 1(1)

EGERTON, A.C. (secretary, Royal Society)

B.1 F.2 to Chadwick 41 1(1)


from Guéron 57 1(1)


from Perrin, F. 52 1(1)


B.1 F.2 to Akers 43 1(2)


B.1 F.2 from K 43 1(1)

FRANK, Peter

from Perret 59 1(1)


B.1 F.4 to K 50 1(1)


B.1 F.2 to: Akers 43 1(2); B.1 F.2 K 43 1(1); B.1 F.2 from K 43 1(3)

GARDEL, A. (Commaunauté d'Interets pour l'Etude de la Production et de l'Utilisation de l'Energie Nucléaire)

B.1 F.5 to K 57 1(1); B.1 F.5 from K 57 1(1)

GODARD, Michel

B.1 F.9 to K 63 2(3)


B.1 F.9 to K 64-66 5(7); B.1 F.9 from K 64-66 3(6)


B.1 F.6 to K 60 2(3)

GORDON-MUNRO, R. (Office of the High Commissioner for the United Kingdom, Ottawa)

B.1 F.2 from K 45 1(1)

GOWING, Margaret M.

B.1 F.9 to K 64-65 3(3); B.1 F.9 from K 64 1(3)

GRAVIER, Maurice (Maison des Etudiants Suédois)

B.2 F.13 to Dautry 51 1(1)

GUÉRON, Genviève

B.2 F.12 to Weill, Mme. A. 45(?) 1(1)


B.1 F.2 to: Akers 43 1(2); B.1 F.6 Erdeley 57 1(2); B.1 F.2 K 43 1(2); B.1 F.5 from: K 56 1(1); Peierson 59 1(1)


B.1 F.5 from K 55 1(1)

GUMBEL, E.J. (New School for Social Research)

B.1 F.2 to K 45 1(1)


B.2 F.18 to K 46 1(1)

HALBAN, Hans von, Jr.

B.1 F.2 To: Akers 43-45 2(4); B.2 F.12 Cockcroft 41 1(1); B.2 F.12 Délégation de la France Libre aux Etats Unis 43 1(1); B.1 F.2 & B.2 F.10 & 12 Joliot-Curie, F. 39-57 3(5); B.1 F.1-2 & B.1 F.9 K 39-55 5(6); B.1 F.2 Peierls 41 1(1); B.2 F.12 Thomson 41 4(6); B.1 F.9 Wigner 55 2(5); B.1 F.2 United Kingdom government 41-42 2(10); from: Cockcroft 40 1(1); Joliot-Curie, F. 40 1(4); B.1 F.2 & B.1 F.9 K 38-55 5(6); Oliphant 41 1(2); Placzek 39 1(5); Thomson 41 3(3); Wigner 54-55 2(4)

HALBAN, Hans von, Sr.

B.2 F.12 to Adler 39 1(1)


B.1 F.5 to K 56 1(1)


B.1 F.6 to K 60 2(3); B.1 F.6 from K 59-60 3(5)


B.1 F.4 to K 46 1(2)

HATECLOQUE, --de (Ambassadeur de France, Canada)

B.1 F.2 from K 45 1(1)


B.1 F.2 to Akers 43 1(2)

HOUET, Roger, René Picard, Pierre Dautriche, René Jugeau

B.1 F.4 to Dautry 51 2(4)

HOUET, Roger (Union des Ingénieurs et Techniciens Français)

B.1 F.4 to K 51 2(2); from Dautry 51 1(1)


B.1 F.6 to K 60 2(4); B.1 F.6 from K 60 1(1)


from: Marchat 59 2(2); Saeland 59 1(3)


B.2 F.12 to: Dautry 40 1(6); B.2 F.12 Directeur des Affaires Civiles 38 1(3); B.1 F.1 Halban, H., Jr., and K 40 1(4); B.2 F.12 Ingénieur en chef, service D, Direction des Poudres 39 1(2); B.1 F.1-2 & B.1 F.4 K 39-49 6(10); B.2 F.13 Maire de Sceaux 46 1(1); B.2 F.12 Ministrie de Justice 38 1(1); from: Halban, H., Jr. 39-57 3(5); B.1 F.1-2 & B.1 F.4 K 39-50 4(5); Moraud 39 1(1); Président du Conseil des Ministres 48 1(8)


Lecture notes on Rutherford, 1947, 8p.


B.1 F.2 to Akers 43 1(2); B.1 F.2 Perrin, M. 42 1(2)


B.1 F.5 to K 55-56 2(2); B.1 F.5 from K 56 1(3)


B.1 F.5 to K 56 1(1)


B.1 F.5 to K 55 1(1)


B.1 F.9 to K 66 1(1)

LANGLET, Mlle. C. (Chef du secretariat du Haut-Commissaire, C.E.A.)

B.1 F.4 to K 53 1(1)

LEGETT, M. Bryce (Secretary, Atoms for Peace Awards, Inc.)

B.1 F.6 to K 56 1(1); B.1 F.6 from K 56 1(1)


B.1 F.4 to K 48 1(2)


B.2 F.13 to Dautry 51 1(1); from: Dautry 50-51 13(13); B.1 F.4 K 51 1(1)


B.1 F.3 from K 46 1(1)


B.1 F.2 to Akers 43 1(2)


B.1 F.5 to K 54 1(1)


B.1 F.6 & B.2 F.13 to Huet 59 2(2)

MAY, Alan N.

B.1 F.2 to: Akers 43 1(2); B.1 F.2 Chadwick 42 1(1); B.1 F.2 Perrin, M. 42 1(2)

MCINTYRE, Hugh C. (Canadian Nuclear Technology)

B.1 F.9 to K 55 1(2)

MCKINNEY, Robert (U.S. Congress, Joint Committee on Atomic Energy)

B.1 F.5 to K 60 1(1)


B.1 F.6 from K 59 1(1)


B.2 F.12 to Joliot-Curie, F. 39 1(1)


B.1 F.9 Notes on "Bataille de l'Eau Lourde," 1961, 10p.


B.1 F.3 to K 46 1(1)


B.1 F.2 from K 45 1(1)


B.1 F.2 to: Halban, H., Jr. 41 1(2); B.1 F.2 K 42 1(1); B.1 F.2 from K 41-42 2(2)

O'NEILL, J.F. (United Kingdom Payments Office)

B.1 F.2 to Consul for the United States, Montreal 45 1(1)

PARMOOR, Lady Marian E.

B.1 F.3 to K 49-50 7(8); B.1 F.3 from K 49-50 2(2)

PEIERLS, Rudolf E.

B.1 F.2 to K 41-42 4(7); from: Halban, H., Jr. 41 1(1); B.1 F.2 K 41-42 3(4)


B.1 F.6 to Guéron, J. 59 1(1)

PERRET, Roland

B.1 F.6 to Frank 59 1(1); B.1 F.5-6 K 57-60 25(44); B.1 F.5-6 from: K 58-60 29(46); Shaw, J. 58 2(2)

PERRIN, Francis

B.2 F.13 to: Ertaud and Yvon 52 1(1); B.2 F.13 Dautry 51 1(1); B.2 F.13 Département de Métallurgie 53(?) 1(1); B.1 F.4-5 K 51-55 10(12); B.2 F.11 Urey 63 1(2); B.2 F.13 Yvon, Horowitz, Taranger, Descans, Robert 54 1(1); B.1 F.4-5 & B.1 F.9 from: K 51-56 21(39); Thomson 64 1(1); Urey 63 1(2); Winter 52 1(1)

PERRIN, Michael

B.1 F.2 to K 43 1(1); from: Kemmer 42 2(4); B.1 F.2 K 41-42 3(5)

PERROUX, François

B.1 F.5 to K 58 1(1)


B.2 F.12 to Halban, H., Jr. 39 1(5)

POIROT, E. (Ecole Centrale de la T.S.F.)

B.1 F.4 to K 51 1(1)


B.1 F.2 memorandum, 1942, 3p.


B.2 F.13 to Joliot-Curie, F. 48 1(8)

RAGEY, L. (Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers)

B.1 F.13 to Dautry 51 1(1); B.1 F.5 from K 54 1(1)


B.1 F.2 to: Cockcroft 44-45 2(3); B.1 F.2 K 44 1(1); from: Akers 46 3(4); B.1 F.2 K 43-45 2(3)


B.1 F.4 from K 53 1(3)


B.1 F.6 to Huet 59 1(3)


B.1 F.9 to K 66 1(1); B.1 F.9 from K 66 1(3)

SHAW, Jenifer C. (O.E.E.C.)

B.1 F.5 to Perret 58 2(2)


B.1 F.4 to K 51 1(1)


from Ambrosino, G., and H. Piatrer 48 1(1)

THEWLIS, J. (National Research Council, Canada)

B.1 F.2 to K 45 1(1)

THOMSON, Sir George P.

B.2 F.12 to Halban, H., Jr. 41 3(3); B.2 F.11 Perrin, F. 64 1(1); from Halban, H., Jr. 41 4(6)

UREY, Harold C.

B.2 F.11 to Perrin, F. 63 1(2); from Perrin, F. 63 1(2)

VAUCHER, Paul (Mission Universitaire)

B.1 F.2 to K 44 2(2)

VIDAL, L. (Service Sanitaire)

B.2 F.13 to Dautry 51 1(1)

WEILL, Mme. A.

from Guéron, G. 45 1(1)

WIGNER, Eugene P.

B.1 F.9 to: Halban, H., Jr. 54-55 2(4); B.1 F.9 K 54-55 3(3); from: Halban, H., Jr. 55 2(5); B.1 F.9 K 55 2(7)


B.1 F.4 to Perrin, F. 52 1(1)


from Perrin, F. 52 2(2)