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Finding Aid to the Joan Bromberg Collection, Materials Collected for Writing the Book Fusion: Science, Politics, and the Invention of a New Energy Source, (MIT Press, 1982), 1922-1982 (bulk 1958-1979)

Description of Collection


American Institute of Physics. Center for History of Physics.

College Park, MD 20740

Papers created by

Bromberg, Joan Lisa

Size of collection

8 linear feet (18 boxes)

Short description of collection

Bromberg, a historian of science, collected these materials while doing research for her book Fusion: Science, Politics, and the Invention of a New Energy Source, focusing on fusion research for the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Materials include audio recordings and transcripts, reference files, and conference proceedings.

Language(s) of collection


Unit ID

AR 297

Biography of Joan L. Bromberg

Joan L. Bromberg is a historian of science. She has been on the history of science faculty at the University of Hawaii, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, and the Hebrew University. She was assistant to Léon Rosenfeld at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen from 1969-1971, and a contract historian at the U.S. Department of Energy from 1977-1981. In addition to authoring Fusion: Science, Politics, and the Invention of a New Energy Source (MIT Press, 1982), Bromberg directed the laser history project co-sponsored by the American Institute of Physics, Center for History of Physics. The Laser in America, 1950-1970 (MIT Press, 1991) is the result of her work on this project. Her most recent book is NASA and the Space Industry (New Series in NASA History, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999).

Scope and Contents of Collection

Bromberg collected these materials while doing research for her 1982 book, Fusion: Science, Politics, and the Invention of a New Energy Source. She focused on fusion research undertaken for the U.S. Department of Energy, and its predecessors the U.S. Energy Research and Development Corporation, and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In documenting the history of the Sherwood project (as the quest for fusion was also known), she examined the activities of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California's Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, several international contributors, and corporate interests.

Bromberg also spent considerable time with significant individuals on the project, investigating their contributions to the development of fusion. She spoke with physicists and administrators, and includes tapes of the interviews, her notes and correspondence, as well as biographical information collected about them. The interviews consist of full or partial transcriptions and audio cassettes of interviews with approximately seventy prominent fusion researchers. The longest interviews are with John F. Clarke, Bruno Coppi, Ray A. Dandl, Stephen O. Dean, Harold Eubank, Harold P. Furth, Melvin B. Gottlieb, Roy W. Gould, Harold Grad, Robert L. Hirsch, Franz C. Jahoda, Edwin E. Kintner, Robert G. Mills, Ronald R. Parker, Richard Ruark, and James Leslie Tuck. The proceedings are of the Sherwood Conferences on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions (1952-1958) held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Materials include reference files, transcripts, audio recordings, conference proceedings. The reference files are copies of unpublished contract reports, internal memoranda, minutes, etc. The topics covered range from discussion about the classified status of the project until 1958, to the administrative decisions that redirected the focus of the program to the Tokamak in 1978, and the shape of the program as it moved into the 1980s.

Before depositing the materials in the Niels Bohr Library, Bromberg culled any materials she determined to be easily accessible elsewhere; the remainder consists primarily of photocopies of correspondence, administrative records, meeting minutes and reports, in addition to her own notes. Some documents in this collection were initially classified and researchers should be aware that they may have been censored during declassification and therefore be incomplete. There is very little original material aside from the notes created by Bromberg.

Restrictions on Use and Access

Approved access application on file in the Niels Bohr Library, and permission of Joan L. Bromberg required for use. Permission to quote or cite must be obtained in advance from the Director of the Center for History of Physics, American Institute of Physics.

Use of primary source material in the Niels Bohr Library requires prior approval through an Application for Access, which includes a statement of research purpose and the names and addresses of two scholars as references. Access applications can be obtained by contacting the Library (telephone 301-209-3177; or e-mail The application can also be printed from our website.

Selected Search Terms

These papers have been indexed in the International Catalog of Sources for History of Physics and Allied Sciences (ICOS) using the following terms. Those seeking related materials should search under these terms.


Clarke, John F., 1939-
Coppi, Bruno.
Dandl, Ray A.
Dean, Stephen Odell, 1936-
Eubank, Harold.
Furth, H. P.
Gottlieb, Melvin.
Gould, Roy W.
Grad, Harold, 1923-
Hirsch, Robert L. (Robert Louis), 1935-
Jahoda, Franz C.
Kintner, Edwin.
Mills, Robert G.
Parker, Ronald R.
Ruark, Arthur Edward, 1899-
Tuck, James Leslie.


Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Princeton University. Plasma Physics Laboratory.
Sherwood Conference on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions.
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
U.S. Energy Research and Development Corporation.
United States. Congress. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy.
United States. Dept. of Energy.

Subject terms

Historians of science.
Nuclear fusion.
Nuclear physics.
Nuclear reactions.

Genre terms

Audio cassettes.

Arrangement/Organization of Collection

Bromberg organized her papers chronologically according to when she acquired them. Although she indexed them according to author and date, this system of access was insufficient for use by others, and the collection was reorganized into a scheme more accessible to researchers. Her original organization is reflected in a file of index cards, and explained in her own notes with the collection (see Box 18).

The papers are arranged into series by institutional source of the records, usually research laboratories or government entities. The first five series contain similar subseries defined by type of record. Series VI, Other Contributors, 1922-1980, is not subdivided at all, and Series VII, Bromberg's Notes, 1951-1982, is subdivided by content type.

Deteriorating materials were either photocopied onto acid-free paper or isolated in separate folders. Staples and other binding metals were removed and the collection was rehoused in acid-free folders and boxes.

Provenance and Acquisition Information

Joan L. Bromberg donated these papers to the American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library in 1982. She eliminated materials easily accessible elsewhere, but otherwise they were transferred intact.

Processing Information

This collection was processed by Coralina Daly in March, 1999.

Preferred Citation of Collection

Cite as: [Folder title, date; Folder number, Box number], Joan Bromberg Collection, 1922-1982, Materials collected for writing the book Fusion: Science, Politics, and the Invention of a New Energy Source. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library, College Park, MD, 20740 USA.

Related Collections

American Institute of Physics. Center for History of Physics. Laser History Project. Records, 1981-1989. (3 ft.)

Administrative Information


Finding Aid to the Joan Bromberg Collection, Materials Collected for Writing the Book Fusion: Science, Politics, and the Invention of a New Energy Source (MIT Press, 1982), 1922-1982


American Institute of Physics. Center for History of Physics.

One Physics Ellipse
College Park, MD 20740

December 29, 2004

Encoding Information

Machine-readable finding aid encoded in EAD 2002 by Katherine A. Hayes on December 29, 2004. Any revisions made to this finding aid occurred as part of the editing and encoding process.

Series I. United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 1951-1982

(Boxes 1-5)

Includes all materials originating in the federal agency. Much of the material is drawn from the files of the Division of Research's Controlled Thermonuclear Reaction program and the Division of Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR was removed from the research division in 1971), as well as the Steering and Standing Committees, and the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. As the project was sponsored by the U.S. government, much of the information that spans laboratories is included in this series.

Subseries A. Administrative Materials (1951-1980)

These materials include budget, personnel, policy, and program review documents.

Box 1 Folder 1 Administrative Materials 1953-1969
Folder 2 Administrative Materials 1970-1977
Folder 3 'CTR Budget' Binder of Notes 1951-1980
Folder 4 Fusion Facilities Directory 1980
Folder 5 Steering Committee Membership Lists 1956-1958; 1967-1971

Subseries B. Correspondence (1951-1981)

This subseries includes correspondence from individuals involved in the Fusion program at the federal level, often administrators. Significant persons include: Lewis Strauss, Arthur Ruark, Paul McDaniel, Amasa Bishop, Glenn Seaborg, Robert Hirsch, and Roy Gould. Correspondence contains materials directed to the AEC from interested individuals outside the fusion program, including members of Congress. Among the important topics discussed in these letters and memoranda is the debate over declassification. Letters often also include updates on the program's status.

Box 1 Folder 6 Correspondence 1951-1959
Folder 7 Correspondence 1960-1969
Folder 8 Correspondence 1970-1973
Box 2 Folder 1 Correspondence 1974-1981
Folder 2 Correspondence undated

Subseries C. Meeting Materials (1954-1974)

The meeting materials in this series are dominated by minutes from Sherwood Committee meetings, Steering and Standing Committee meetings, and meetings between project directors. These files also include minutes from CTR staff meetings as well as various invitations and meeting agendas.

Box 2 Folder 3 Meeting Materials 1954-1959
Folder 4 Meeting Materials 1960-1964
Folder 5 Meeting Materials 1965-1966
Folder 6 Meeting Materials 1967-1969
Folder 7 Meeting Materials 1970-1972
Box 17 Folder 3 tapes of CTR Standing Committee Meeting, Washington, D.C. May 14, 1971
Box 2 Folder 8 Meeting Materials 1973
Box 3 Folder 1 Meeting Materials 1974

Subseries D. Reports (1951-1982)

This subseries includes issues of the Fusion Forefront Newsletter. Often progress reports, these materials contain some reports directed to Congress and the President. Also includes speeches, memos with reports attached, and published reports, and documents program visits and progress, including international consultations.

Box 3 Folder 2 Fusion Forefront Newsletter 1974-1979
Folder 3 Reports 1951-1956
Folder 4 "Report on Project Sherwood Covering a Study Period From 1956 August 1, 1955 Through April 30, 1956,"
Folder 5 Reports 1957-1961
Folder 6 "Civilian Nuclear Power - A Report to the President" 1962
Folder 7 Reports 1966-1970
Folder 8 Reports 1971-1973
Folder 9 Reports 1974
Folder 10 Reports 1975
Box 5 Folder 1 Reports 1976
Folder 2 Reports 1977-78
Folder 3 Reports 1979-82
Folder 4 Reports undated
Box 4 Folder 1 Classified Conference on Thermonuclear Reactors, Denver 1952
Folder 2 Conference on Thermonuclear Reactions, Berkeley 1953
Folder 3 Conference on Thermonuclear Reactions, Princeton 1954
Folder 4 Conference on Thermonuclear Reactions, Livermore(1) 1955
Folder 5 Conference on Thermonuclear Reactions, Livermore(2) 1955
Folder 6 Conference on Thermonuclear Reactions, Livermore(3) 1955
Folder 7 Conference on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Princeton(1) 1955
Folder 8 Conference on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Princeton(2) 1955
Folder 9 Conference on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Princeton(3) 1955
Folder 10 Conference on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Princeton(4) 1955
Folder 11 Conference on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Gatlinburg(1) 1956
Folder 12 Conference on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Gatlinburg(2) 1956
Folder 13 Conference on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Gatlinburg(3) 1956
Folder 14 Conference on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Gatlinburg(4) 1956
Folder 15 Conference on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Gatlinburg(5) 1956
Folder 16 Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Conference at Berkeley 1957
Folder 17 Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Conference at Berkeley(1) 1957
Folder 18 Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Conference at Berkeley(2) 1957
Folder 19 Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Conference at Berkeley(1) 1957
Folder 20 Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Conference at Berkeley(2) 1957
Folder 21 Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions, Conference at Berkeley(3) 1957
Folder 22 Controlled Thermonuclear Conference Held, Washington, D.C.(1) 1958
Folder 23 Controlled Thermonuclear Conference Held, Washington, D.C.(2) 1958
Folder 24 Controlled Thermonuclear Conference Held, Washington, D.C.(3) 1958

Series II. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), 1951-1979

(Boxes 5-6)

The Princeton lab and its long-time director Lyman Spitzer were proponents of the Stellarator. This series includes materials about Princeton's contributions to fusion research, including Project Matterhorn.

Subseries A. Administrative Materials (1955-1965)

Princeton's administrative materials concentrate on personnel, budget, and planning issues, as well as the Summer Institute in Plasma Physics.

Box 5 Folder 5 Administrative Materials 1955-1965, undated

Subseries B. Correspondence (1951-1973)

The correspondence Bromberg collected from Princeton includes letters from Spitzer and Melvin Gottlieb, among others.

Box 5 Folder 6 Correspondence 1951-1973

Subseries C. Meeting Materials (1954-1966)

These materials focus on the Matterhorn review committee, and other program reviews.

Box 5 Folder 7 Meeting Materials 1954-1966
Folder 8 Matterhorn (PPPL) Review Committee 1955-1963

Subseries D. Reports (1951-1979)

Princeton's reports contain materials about Project Matterhorn, the Model C Stellarator, and the Alcator and Tokamak systems.

Box 5 Folder 9 "Report of the TFTR Physics Advisory Committee" 1975
Box 6 Folder 1 Reports 1951-1961
Folder 2 Reports 1969-1978, n.d
Folder 3 "Problems of the Stellarator as a Useful Power Source," JLB's notes 1954
Folder 4 "The Model C Decade, 1961-1969: An Informal History 1979

Series III. University of California's Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (Livermore), 1952-1978

(Boxes 6-7)

The Livermore lab developed the "mirror" experiment. Nicholas Christofilos' ALICE proposal was also influential at the Livermore lab.

Subseries A. Administrative Materials (1953-1977)

These materials cover budget expenses, program justification and planning, as well as the ALICE and ASTRON programs.

Box 6 Folder 5 Administrative Materials 1953-1976, undated
Folder 6 ALICE 1963-1977, undated
Folder 7 ASTRON Program 1963-1972, undated

Subseries B. Correspondence (1952-1972)

This subseries holds correspondence from such notables as Herbert York, Ernest Lawrence, Richard Post, T.K. Fowler, and Roger Batzel.

Box 6 Folder 8 Correspondence 1952-1972

Subseries C. Meeting Materials (1976-1977)

Livermore hosted the US-USSR Symposium on Fusion-Fission Reactors in 1976. The summary of these proceedings and the proceedings of the second Fusion-Fission Energy Systems Review Meeting in 1977 are in this subseries.

Box 6 Folder 9 "US-USSR Symposium on Fusion-Fission Reactors" and "Proceedings of the Second Fusion-Fission Energy Systems Review Meeting" 1976-1977

Subseries D. Reports (1952-1978)

Bromberg's collection of Livermore reports covers topics including the Uppsala conference, general reports on controlled thermonuclear reactions, project reviews, the status of the mirror program, the visit of the US CTR team to the USSR, the ASTRON program, and environmental aspects of reactors.

Box 7 Folder 1 Reports 1952-1959
Folder 2 Reports 1961-1964
Folder 3 Reports 1967-1974
Folder 4 Reports 1975-1978

Series IV. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), 1948-1978

(Boxes 7-8)

Los Alamos was led by James L. Tuck in the early years of fusion when they worked on the "pinch" and by Fred Ribe during the Scyllac experiments. While subseries A should be administrative materials from Los Alamos, in accordance with the format of the other laboratory series, there were none found amongst these papers. Therefore, the administrative subseries was eliminated from Series IV.

Subseries A. Correspondence (1951-1975)

Los Alamos correspondence covers material sent by (and occasionally to) James Tuck and Fred Ribe, among others.

Box 7 Folder 5 Correspondence 1951-1975

Subseries B. Meeting Materials (1962-1975)

These materials focus on meetings between LASL and CTR staff.

Box 7 Folder 6 Meeting Materials 1962-1975

Subseries C. Reports (1948-1978)

The earliest material in this collection, LASL's reports document some of the early ideas about fusion. They also include pinch proposals and related materials, histories of Los Alamos' involvement in fusion research, and general reports on the logistics of fusion.

Box 8 Folder 1 Reports 1948-1969
Folder 2 Reports 1973-1978, undated
Folder 3 "Review of Controlled Thermonuclear Research at Los Alamos" 1965

Series V. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), 1951-1979

(Boxes 8-9)

The fusion team at Oak Ridge focused their early efforts on the Ormak.

Subseries A. Administrative Materials (1951-1979)

This subseries includes documents regarding long-range program planning, diagrams of program structure, and a list of ORNL publications.

Box 8 Folder 4 Administrative Materials 1951-1979

Subseries B. Correspondence (1955-1975)

ORNL correspondence involving such people as John Luce, Alvin Weinberg, J. Rand McNally, Jr., and Arthur Snell.

Box 8 Folder 5 Correspondence 1955-1975

Subseries C. Meeting Materials (1959-1968)

The ORNL meeting materials center on reports of Sherwood Committee meetings held there. Also included is Postma's report of the Novosibirsk conference, 1968.

Box 8 Folder 6 Meeting Materials 1959-1968

Subseries D. Reports (1957-1979)

The ORNL reports in this collection include annual reports, design reports, travel reports, and results reports. Many of these focus on the Ormak.

Box 8 Folder 7 Reports 1957-1968
Box 9 Folder 1 Reports 1969-1972
Folder 2 Reports 1973-1979, undated

Series VI. Other Contributors, 1922-1980

(Boxes 9-10)

This series includes other influential contributors such as New York University's Institute of Mathematics and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It also includes the corporate contingent of the fusion effort, with material from General Electric's Research Laboratory and General Dynamic Corporation's General Atomic Division. Also included in this series are records Bromberg collected to document international cooperation, especially with the United Kingdom and the USSR.

Box 9 Folder 3 MIT 1955-1974
Folder 4 MIT: "High Temperature Regimes in Magnetically Confined Plasmas" 1975
Folder 5 New York University's Institute of Mathematics 1952-1968
Folder 6 New York University's Institute of Mathematics: "Sherwood Progress Reports #2-5" 1957-1961
Folder 7 Texas Atomic Energy Research Foundation 1979-1980
Folder 8 ZETA 1958-1975, undated
Folder 9 Fusion Power Associates 1979-1980
Folder 10 General Electric Research Laboratory 1951-1967; 1979
Folder 11 General Dynamics Corp. General Atomic Div. 1961-1967
Box 10 Folder 1 United Kingdom 1957-1977
Folder 2 USSR 1962-1977, undated
Folder 3 "Executive Director's Report on the Second International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland" 1958
Folder 4 "Status of Magnetic Fusion Research: A Report to the International Fusion Research Council, International Atomic Energy Agency" 1977
Folder 5 "Alcator Scaling Laws," Prepared by D.S. Pappas for APS Plasma Physics Meeting. "Minutes of the 60th and 61st Meeting of the Board of Directors, American Nuclear Society" 1974-1975
Folder 6 Ford's Aeronautic, Electric Power Reserch Institute, Gibbs and Cox, Inc., New Jersey Public Service Electric and Gas, PGE, Texas Electric Service Co., The Sinetics Group, Westinghouse Electric Corporation 1922-1980
Folder 7 "Institutional Constraints to Fusion Commercialization" and "Commercializing Fusion" 1976-1979
Folder 8 Cooperative Efforts (US) 1966-1977
Folder 9 UC Berkeley, UChicago, Cornell, UTexas Austin, UWisconsin 1953-1976
Folder 10 Articles on Fusion 1957-1978

Series VII. Bromberg's Notes, 1951-1982

(Boxes 10-18)

This series consists of original materials written by Bromberg and her research assistants. These materials include biographical materials that were gathered as vertical files, correspondence and notes relating to the process of researching the book, and tapes of interviews.

Subseries A. Biography Files (1951-1982)

These files contain the information Bromberg was able to collect as background information on people concerned with the Fusion project. Due to the number of people Bromberg collected notes on the files have been grouped together; one folder may hold more than one person's information.

Box 10 Folder 11 Philip H. Abelson (1979), Lev Artismovich (1973, undated), 1973-1979, George Bekefi (undated), Don A. Baker (1979), Clarence Barnett (1980), Amasa Bishop (1966, undated), Keith Boyer (undated), Norris E. Bradbury (1979), Solomon Bucksbaum (1979, undated), W.M. Brobeck (undated), K.A. Brueckner (undated), Louis Burkhardt (1977-1979), Robert Bussard (undated) 1966-1980, undated
Folder 12 Nicholas Christofilos 1959-1981
Folder 13 John Clarke (1977-79), S.A. Colgate (1979), Bruno Coppi (1972-1980) 1976-1982
Folder 14 Frederic H. Coensgen 1959-1980, undated
Folder 15 Philip Davenport (undated), N. Anne Davies (1980), Stephen O. Dean (1977-80), John M. Deutch (1980), Charles Damm (1977), Ray Dandl (undated), William Drummond (1980) 1977-1980
Folder 16 William R. Ellis (1979), Harold P. Eubank (undated) 1979, undated
Folder 17 T.K. Fowler 1963-1980
Box 11 Folder 1 H.P. Furth (1971-1979, undated), Melvin Gottlieb (1977-1980, undated), William Gough (1970-1979, undated) 1970-1980, undated
Folder 2 Roy W. Gould (1979, undated), Harold Grad (1979, undated), Donald Grove (1977-78, undated), Gareth Guest (1979) 1977-1979, undated
Folder 3 Robert L. Hirsch 1973-1981
Folder 4 Robert L. Hirsch's Diary Mar-July, 1975
Folder 5 Robert L. Hirsch's Diary Aug 1975-Jan 1976
Folder 6 Henry Hurwitz (1958-1978. undated), Franz Jahoda (1979), Torkild Jensen (1979, undated), John Johnson (1978, undated) 1958-1979, undated
Folder 7 T.H. Johnson (1951-1957), E. Kemp (undated), Donald W. Kerst (1978, undated), Herb Kinney (undated), Edwin Kintner (1976-81, undated) 1951-1981, undated
Folder 8 Alan Kolb (1979, undated), Gerlad Kulcinski (1978), Wulf Kunkel (1978), John D. Lawson (1955-1980, undated), Willard F. Libby (undated) 1955-1980, undated
Folder 9 John Marshall (undated), Mike McCormack (1975-77, undated), Paul McDaniel (1979, undated), Robert G. Mills (undated), D. Bruce Montgomery (1980), Michael Murphy (undated) 1975-1980, undated
Folder 10 Tihiro Ohkawa (1979), Ronald Parker (1980, undated), James Phillips (1979), Herman Postma (1980, undated) 1979-1980, undated
Folder 11 Richard F. Post 1974-1980, undated
Folder 12 J.T. Ramsey, (1980), Fred Ribe (1977-79, undated), Marshall Rosenbluth (undated), Werner B. Reisenfeld (1979), Michael Roberts (1979, undated), Arthur Ruark (1978-79, undated) 1977-1980, undated
Box 12 Folder 1 David J. Rose 1969-1980, undated
Folder 2 G.A. Sawyer (1972-1977), Glenn Seaborg (1961, undated), Robert Seamans (1977-80, undated), Louis Smullin (1980), Thomas Stix (undated) 1961-1980, undated
Folder 3 Lyman Spitzer 1941-1980, undated
Folder 4 Don Steiner (1975-79, undated), Lewis Strauss (1958-80, undated), Gerald Tape (1977, undated), Richard Taschek (1979, undated), John Teem (1978-80, undated), Edward Teller (1978, undated) 1958-1980, undated
Folder 5 James Tuck (1948-79, undated), Chester Van Atta (1978, undated), Kenneth Wakefield (undated), Alan Ware (1950-78, undated) 1948-1979, undated
Folder 6 Alvin Weinberg (1979), Willem Westendorp (1975), Herbert York (1978-79), Shoichi Yoshikawa (1979, undated) 1975-79, undated
Folder 7 Miniature Biographies: R.G. Herb, D.D. Jacobus, G.S. Brown, T.H. Johnson, P.L. Auer, E.N. Parker, S.K. Allison undated
Folder 8 Miniature Biographical notes for commissioners 1958, undated

Subseries B. Interviews (1976-1981)

This subseries consists of audio tapes of interviews, and correspondence from those who preferred to provide their answers by mail. Some of the tapes, Bromberg labeled 'transcribed,' this collection does not contain these transcripts. However, there are some notes Bromberg typed about occasional interviews later from memory.

Box 12 Folder 9 Interview Notes/Correspondence 1976-1981, undated
Box 3 Taped interviews B-E: Don A. Baker, Thomas Batzer - Gus Carlson, Robert Bingham, Solomon Bucksbaum, James Callen, John F. Clarke (2 tapes), Frederick H. Coensgen, Robert W. Conn, Bruno Coppi (2 tapes), Charles Damm, Ray Dandl (2 tapes), Robert C. Seamans, Jr. - N. Anne Davies, Stephen O. Dean (3 tapes), Harold Eubank 1977-79, undated
Box 4 Taped interviews E-K: Harold Eubank, T.K. Fowler, H. P. Furth (2 tapes), Melvin B. Gottlieb(2 tapes), Roy W. Gould ( 2 tapes), Harold Grad (3 tapes), Hans Griem, Don J. Grove - Wolfgang Stodiek, Robert L. Hirsch (2 tapes), Henry Hurwitz - Herbert Pollack, Henry Hurwitz - Herbert Pollack - Willem Westendorp, Franz Jahoda, Franz Jahoda - E.E. Kemp 1977-79, undated
Box 5 Taped interviews J-P: John Johnson, E. Kemp, Daniel Kerst - Wulf Kunkel, Edwin E. Kintner (2 tapes), Alan Kolb - Norman Rostoker, Robert Krakowski, John D. Lawson, John Marshall, Jr., Robert G. Mills (2 tapes), Kenneth Wakefield, D. Bruce Montgomery, O.B. Morgan - Lee A. Berry, Edward Bettis - George Kelly - Robert Dory - James Callen, Edward Bettis - George Kelly - Thomas (?) Jernigan, Julian Dunlap - Don Steiner, Tihiro Ohkawa, Ronald Parker (2 tapes) 1978-79, undated
Box 6 Taped interviews P-S: Ronald Parker, Robert F. Post (3 tapes), Herman Postma, Fred L. Ribe (2 tapes), Werner Riesenfeld, Michael Roberts (2 tapes), Marshall N. Rosenbluth, David J. Rose (3 tapes), Arthur E. Ruark (3 tapes), George A. Sawyer, Arthur H. Snell 1979-80, undated
Box 7 Taped interviews S-Y: Lyman Spitzer, J.C. Spott - Keith Symon, Thomas Stix, Richard F. Taschek, John M. Teem, James Leslie Tuck (4 tapes), Kenneth E. Wakefield, Herbert F. York 1978-80, undated

Subseries C. Research Notes (1978-1982)

These files include Bromberg's research notes, including notes about the various records centers where she conducted her research, pieces of manuscript drafts, and correspondence regarding the accuracy of her information. In addition to other miscellaneous notes, this subseries also includes two photographs.

Box 12 Folder 10 Inventories of Records 1978-79, undated
Folder 11 Copy of manuscript draft section with R.L. Hirsch's comments undated
Folder 12 Correspondence re: draft comments 1981-1982
Folder 13 Miscellaneous undated
Folder 14 "History of the Magnetic Fusion Program: 1951-1976," George Kellog Hess, Jr. 1977
Folder 15 Robert Belfield, "The Utilities Response to Fusion: The User's Demands" and "Industrial Participation in Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, 1954-1967" 1980
Folder 16 8"x10" color photographs: "Section Through a Titanium Washer Stack Plasma Gun," and "Cutaway of Early Toy-Top Experimental Apparatus" undated
Box 18 Bromberg's original index