Spencer R. Weart


"Photoelectric Eclipse Observations of Continuum and Coronal Line Emission at the Solar Limb," University of Colorado PhD. Diss., 1968; Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics Report no. 96.

"Photoelectric Eclipse Observations of the Continuum at the Extreme Solar Limb," with James E. Faller. Astrophysical Journal 157 (1969): 887-901.

"The Birth of Active Regions," with Harold Zirin. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 81 (1969): 270-73.

"Production of the Solar Magnetic Fine-Structure by Convection," Solar Physics 14 (1970): 274-79.

"The Horizontal Component of Spicule Motion," Solar Physics 14 (1970): 310-14.

"Photon Counting During an Eclipse," Applied Optics 9 (1970): 2650-52.

"The Birth and Growth of Sunspot Regions," Astrophysical Journal 162 (1970): 987-92.

"What Makes Active Regions Grow?" Astrophysical Journal 177 (1972): 271-76.


Physics circa 1900: Personnel, Funding, and Productivity of the Academic Establishments. With Paul Forman and John L. Heilbron. Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, vol. 5. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Leo Szilard: His Version of the Facts. Editor with Gertrud Weiss Szilard. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1978.

Scientists in Power. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979. Translated as La Grande aventure des atomistes français. Paris: Fayard, 1980.

Nuclear Fear: A History of Images. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.

History of Physics. Articles Reprinted from PHYSICS TODAY. Editor with Melba Phillips. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1985. translated (2 vols.) Tokyo: Maruzen, 1989.

Out of the Crystal Maze: Chapters from the History of Solid State Physics. Editor with Lillian Hoddeson, Ernest Braun, and Jürgen Teichmann. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Never at War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998. (see

The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003; revised and expanded edition, 2008, ISBN-13: 978067403189-0. Translations of either edition: Arabic by Saeed Al-Hasaniyya: ektshaf alahtbas alhrari alkouni, Beirut: Arabic Scientific Publishers, 2004, ISBN: 995329768-1; Chinese by Gong Zhao-Li, Quan Qiu Bian Nuan De Fa Xian, Beijing, Zurich: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2008, ISBN 978756006938-8; Italian by Fjodor Ardiozzoia: Febbre Planetaria, Milan: Orme Editori (2005), ISBN: 888877424-6; Japanese by Kooiti Masuda and Hiromi Kumai: Ondanka no<Hakken>to wa Nani ka, Tokyo: Misuzu Shobo, 2005, ISBN: 462207134-7; by Yoshimoto Akihiro: Hon kaku no kyofu zenshi kaku imeji wa genjitsu seiji ni ikanaru eikyo o ataeta ka, Kyoto: Jimbun Shoin, 2017, ISBN: 978-4-409-24114-1; Spanish by José Luis Gil Aristu: El Calamiento global: Historia de un descubrimento científico, Pamplona: Laetoli, 2006, ISBN: 849336989-6; Korean by Junsoo Kim: Jigu Onnanwha Oui Balkyoun, Paju,, Korea: Dongnyok Science, 2012, ISBN: 978-899024757-5.

The Rise of Nuclear Fear. (Revised and abridged version of Nuclear Fear.) Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012. Japanese translation by Yoshimoto Akihiro: Hon kaku no kyofu zenshi kaku imeji wa genjitsu seiji ni ikanaru eikyo o ataeta ka, Kyoto: Jimbun Shoin, 2017, ISBN: 978-4-409-24114-1.

"The Discovery of Global Warming." Web hypertext (~400,000 words with extensive bibliography and illustrations and more than 2500 hyperlinks), revised annually 2003- ,


Light: A Key to the Universe. (Juvenile) New York: Coward-McCann, 1968.

How to Build a Sun. (Juvenile) New York: Coward-McCann, 1970.

Film: "The Solar Atmosphere." (23 min., black & white, sound) With Barry Nolan. Pasadena: California Institute of Technology, 1971.

Editor from 1974, AIP History of Physics Newsletter, biannual.

Selected Papers of Great American Physicists: The Bicentennial Commemorative Volume of The American Physical Society 1976. Editor. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1976. Online at

Traveling exhibit: "A. Einstein 1879-1979." (Eighteen panels; ca. 400 copies distributed), with Joan N. Warnow and Terrence Gaughan. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1979.

Audiovisual package: "Moments of Discovery. Unit I. The Discovery of Fission. Unit II. A Pulsar Discovery." With Joan N. Warnow et al. Two audio cassettes, teachers' guides, slides, etc.. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1984.

AIP Center for History of Physics World Wide Web HomePage, editor/co-writer and art director, including exhibits: "Einstein: Image and Impact" (1996, 2nd edition 2005- ), “Discovery of the Electron” (1997- ), “Sakharov, Nuclear Weapons & Human Rights” (1998, 2nd edition 2005-), “Heisenberg/Uncertainty” (1998-), “Transistorized!” (1999-), “Marie Curie and Radioactivity” (2000- ),“Marie Curie: Her Story in Brief” (for younger audience, 2005- ), “Lawrence and the Cyclotron” (2002- ), “Moments of Discovery” (2003- ), “Cosmic Journey: A History of Scientific Cosmology (2007- ), "Bright Idea: The First Laser" (2009- )

Editor and author of numerous articles in the biannual AIP History of Physics Newsletter 1974-2009.


"Sources for History of Modern Astrophysics." With David DeVorkin. Fifteen collections in 106 reels and 347 microfiche, plus 2 reels of transcripts of oral history interviews with 66 individuals. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1981.


"Creation of the Universe: A Modest Proposal," With J.M. Pasachoff [Parody]. Journal of Irreproducible Results, 1973; reprinted Theology Today, 1974, 31 (2), 161; R.L. Weber, More Random Walks in Science. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 1982.

"Scientists with a Secret," Physics Today 29, no. 2 (Feb. 1976): 23-30.

"The Rise of `Prostituted' Physics," Nature 262 (l976): 13-17.

"Secrecy, Simultaneous Discovery, and the Theory of Nuclear Reactors," American Journal of Physics 45 (1977): 1049-60.

"Scientific Source Materials: A Note on Their Preservation" (brochure), with Peter Dews and Joan N. Warnow. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1977.

"A Little More Light on N Rays," American Journal of Physics 46 (1978): 306.

"Keeping History Alive: The AIP Center for History of Physics," Optics News (Summer 1978).

"Jean Perrin and the Reorganization of Science," Physics Today 32, no. 6 (June 1979): 42-51.

"The Physics Business in America: A Statistical Reconnaissance," pp. 295-358 in Nathan Reingold, ed., The Sciences in the American Context: New Perspectives. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979.

"The Preservation of Historical Records of Scientific Research Under the Federal Government," with Joan N. Warnow, New York: American Institute of Physics, 1979.

"Interviews as Sources for History of Modern Astrophysics," with David H. DeVorkin. Isis 263 (1981): 471-78.

"The Last Fifty Years -- A Revolution?" Physics Today 34, no. 11 (Nov. 1981): 37-49.

"Putting the Past to Work," Research Management 25, no. 2 (March 1982): 22-25. (Reprinted as "How a Research Organization Can Put the Past to Work," in Corporate Archives and History: Making the Past Work, edited by Anita A. Jones and Philip L. Cantelon, pp. 177-182. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Co., 1993.)

"The Voice of Astronomical History," with David H. DeVorkin, Sky and Telescope 63 (1982): 124-27.

"Nuclear Fear: A Preliminary History," Working Papers in Science and Technology Studies 1, no.1, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1982.

"The Road to Los Alamos," Journal de Physique, Colloque C8, suppl. to Vol. 43, no.12 (1982): C8=301-321.

"The Discovery of Fission and a Nuclear Physics Paradigm," pp. 91-133 in William Shea, ed., Otto Hahn and the Rise of Nuclear Physics. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1983.

"A Study of Preservation of Documents at Department of Energy Laboratories," with Joan N. Warnow, Allan Needell, and Jane Wolff. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1983.

"The Atomic Age: The Heyday of Myth and Cliché," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 41, no. 7 (Aug. 1985): 38-43. Reprinted pp. 81-90 in Len Ackland and Steven McGuire, eds., Assessing the Nuclear Age. Chicago: Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, 1986.

"Work in the United States on the History of 20th Century Physics," pp. 441-53 in Salvo D'Agostino and Sandro Petruccioli, eds., Atti del V Congresso Nazionale di Storia della Fisica. Rome: Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze Detta dei XL, 1985.

"Aid for Teachers from the AIP Center for History of Physics," Journal of College Science Teaching 16, no. 3 (Dec. 1986-Jan. 1987): 178-82.

"Nuclear Fear: A History and an Experiment," pp. 529-550 in H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., and Arthur L. Caplan, eds., Scientific Controversies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

"History of American Attitudes to Civil Defense," pp. 11-32 in John Dowling and Evans Harrell, eds., Civil Defense: A Choice of Disasters. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1987.

"The Physicist as Mad Scientist," Physics Today 41, no. 6 (June 1988): 28-37.

"The Birth of the Solid-State Physics Community," Physics Today 41, no. 7 (July 1988): 38-45.

"Preserving and Making Known the History of Physics: The American Institute of Physics Center for History of Physics," pp. 29-43 in John Roche, ed., Physicists Look Back: Studies in the History of Physics. Bristol: Adam Hilger, 1990.

Articles "Aimé Cotton," "Henry Crew," "Lew Kowarski," and "George Pegram" for Dictionary of Scientific Biography Supplement. New York: Scribner's, 1990.

"Eden Wakes up to a Nightmare," Times Higher Education Supplement (London), no. 1022 (June 5, 1992): 15f.

"How Did People Become Afraid of Reactors?" (Russian translation by C.L. Gurko), Voprosy Filosofii no. 2 (1992): 59-70.

"From the Nuclear Frying Pan into the Global Fire", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 48, no. 5 (June 1992): 18-27.

"The Solid Community," chapter in Hoddeson et al., Out of the Crystal Maze (1992), op. cit., pp. 617-669.

"Fears, Fantasies and Fallout," New Scientist (28 November 1992): 2-5.

"Why They Don't Fight: Democracies, Oligarchies, and Peace," In Brief no. 48 (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, November 1993).

"Peace Among Democratic and Oligarchic Republics," Journal of Peace Research 31, no. 3 (1994): 299-316.

"AIP Study of Multi-Institutional Collaborations. Phase II: Space Science and Geophysics," with Joan Warnow-Blewett, Joel Genuth and Anthony Capitos. College Park, MD: American Institute of Physics, 1995.

"La Peur du nucléaire," Pour la Science (special issue, "Noyaux atomiques et radioactivité," October 1996): 146-151.

"Climate Change, Post-1940," in Gregory A. Good, ed. Sciences of the Earth: An Encyclopedia of Events, People, and Phenomena. New York: Garland Publishing, 1998.

"The Discovery of the Risk of Global Warming," Physics Today 50, no. 1 (Jan. 1997): 34-40.

"Global Warming, Cold War, and the Evolution of Research Plans," Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 27 (1997): 319-356.

"Los Alamos Changed Everything...," Chronicle of Higher Education (21 May 1999): A64.

"AIP Study of Multi-Institutional Collaborations. Phase III: Ground-based Astronomy, Materials Science, Heavy-Ion and Nuclear Physics, and Computer-Mediated Collaborations." With Joan Warnow-Blewett and Joel Genuth. College Park, MD: American Institute of Physics, 2000.

"American Institute of Physics," in Marc Rothenberg, ed. History of Science in the United States: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 2000.

"Remarks on the Ancient Evidence for Democratic Peace," Journal of Peace Research 38 (2001): 609-613.

"Peace among Republics," International History Review 23 (2001): 767-775

"Preserving the Heritage of Discovery," Physics Today 55, no. 1 (Jan. 2002): 28-33. Online at

"Global Warming," article for Dictionary of American History. New York: Scribner's, 3rd ed., 2003.

"Solid-State Physics," with Lillian Hoddeson. In Dictionary of American History. New York: Scribner's, 3rd ed., 2003.

"The Discovery of Rapid Climate Change," Physics Today 56, no. 8 (Aug. 2003): 30-36. Online at

"Gallery: Spencer Weart on Depicting Global Warming," Environmental History 10 (2005): 770-775.

"Changing the Climate... of Public Opinion," American Physical Society APS News 15, no. 2 (Feb. 2006): 12.

"Trend-spotting: Physics in 1931 and Today," Physics Today 59, no. 6 (June 2006): 32-36. Online at

"La fisica dello stato solido," pp. 510-513 in Sandro Petruccioli, ed. Storia della scienza. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, vol. 8 (2004); "La fisica della materia condensata," pp. 623-33 in vol. 16 (2006).

"Loading the Dice" and other essays for Weather Channel blog (2006),

"Global Warming: How History Is Being Manipulated to Undermine Calls for Action," History News Network, 10/16/06. Online at

"Reasons to be Cheerful," New Scientist no. 2599 (April 14, 2007), p. 20.

"Money for Keeling: Monitoring CO2 levels," Historical Studies in the Phyiscal and Biological Sciences 37 (2007): 435-452. doi:10.1525.

"A National Security Issue? How People Tried to Frame Global Warming," pp. 23-44 in Carolyn Pumphrey, ed. Global Climate Change National Security Implications. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2009. Online at

Guest essays on "A Saturated Gassy Argument" (with Raymond T. Pierrehumbert, June 26, 2007); "Antarctica is Cold? Yeah, We Knew That" (Feb. 12, 2008); "Simple Question, Simple Answer… Not" (Sept. 8, 2008)

"Nuclear Fear 1987–2007: Has Anything Changed? Has Everything Changed?" pp. 229-265 in Robert Jacobs, ed., Filling the Hole in the Nuclear Future: Art and Popular Culture Respond to the Bomb. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2010.

"The Idea of Anthropogenic Global Climate Change in the 20th Century," Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 1 (2010): 67-81, doi:10.1002/WCC.6.

"The Development of General Circulation Models of Climate," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (2010): 208-217, doi: 10.1016/j.shpsb.2010.06.002.

"Global Warming: How Skepticism became Denial," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 67(1) (Jan. 2011): 41-50.

"Comment" in Roundtable Review of Oreskes & Conway, Merchants of Doubt, H-Environment Roundtable Reviews 1(2) (2011),

"Shunning New Nuclear Power Plants Will Lead to Warmer World," Yale Environment 360 (26 March 2012),

"The Evolution of International Cooperation in Climate Science," Journal of International Organization Studies 3(1) (2012): 41-59.

"Rise of Interdisciplinary Research on Climate," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (2013) suppl. 1:3657-64, doi:10.1073/pnas.1107482109.

"Aerosols: Research and Science," "Solar Variability," and "Temperature Record" in Brian C. Black, ed., Climate Change: An Encyclopedia of Science and History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2013.

"Atmosphere, General Circulation of the," in James Trefil, ed., Discoveries in Modern Science: Exploration, Invention, Technology..Farmington Hills: Macmillan Reference USA, 2014.

"History of Scientific Work on Climate Change," pp. 87-89 in Gerald R. North, John Pyle and Fuqing Zhang, eds., Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 2. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2nd edition, 2015..

Review of Frank Close, “Half-Life: The Divided Life of Bruno Pontecorvo, Physicist or Spy,” Physics Today 68:3 (March 2015), p. 48.

“Climate Change Impacts: The Growth of Understanding,” Physics Today 68:9 (Sept. 2015), pp. 46-52.

“Nuclear Energy, Global Warming, and the Politicization of Science,” APS News (June 2016), p. 8.

“Why We Need to Start Worrying and Fear the Bomb,” Maclean's (August 11, 2017). Online at

“Teaching Climate Science as History,” pp. 3-14 in Daniel P. Shepardson, Anita Roychoudhury and Andrew S. Hirsch, eds., Teaching and Learning about Climate Change. New York: Routledge, 2017.

Review of “Cultures of Prediction in Atmospheric and Climate Science: Epistemic and Cultural Shifts in Computer-based Modelling and Simulation,” Technology and Culture 59 (2018): 505-506.

Review of “Solid State Insurrection: How the Science of Substance Made American Physics Matter,” American Journal of Physics 87 (2019): 235-236.

"Charles David Keeling: Making Good Measurements, Reports of the National Center for Science Education 40, no. 2 (Spring, 2020), pp 6-7. Online at

"Madrid 1995: A Sentence to Change the World," Reports of the National Center for Science Education 40, no. 4 (Fall, 2020), p. 13. Online at

Essay review of Mark Lynas, "Final Warning,", August 19, 2020, online at

Essay review of A. Lieven, "Climate Change and the Nation State,", October 8, 2020,

"Vostok Station: Climate Change Is Real," Reports of the National Center for Science Education 41, no. 2 (Spring, 2021). Online at

"Public Images of Nuclear Energy," pp. 602–611 in E. Greenspan, ed., Encyclopedia of Nuclear Energy, vol. 4. London: Elsevier, 2021. Online at

"Wally Broecker's Intuition," Reports of the National Center for Science Education 41, no. 4 (Fall, 2021), p. 13. Online at

"Solar Physics and the Climate Problem," Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage24 (2021): 1075-1079.

"Death Rays: The History of Nuclear Fear," presentation in National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Understanding the Societal Challenges Facing Nuclear Power: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2022 [doi:10.17226/26606].

"The Climate Commons and the Survival of Democracy," pp. 179-195 in M. Holm and R.S. Deese, eds., How Democracy Survives: Global Challenges in the Anthropocene. London: Routledge, 2022 [doi: 10.4324/9781003218586-15].

“Are There Simple Models of Global Warming?” The Physics Teacher 61 (2023): 318-320.

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